燃烧的远征——A keen revelation for iBT

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今天魔兽上映第一天,满怀欣喜。标题用了燃烧的远征,相信活过那段青春的人都懂。而对于我们一直和托福浴血奋战的人们来说,考完托福不是我们出国的重点,而是我们满腔热血散发的起点,加油各位,和我一起继续浴血奋战!最后,借这个机会我喊一句:Lok Tar Ogar,因为我一直用Orc,在你们看这篇文章的时候我应该奋战在War3平台上怀念青春,欢迎来打我。


陈小睿老师远征10次托福的第2次回忆来了!(想看第一次托福解析请点击这里查看高端炫富:连考10次托福竟然只是为了……


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考点照和黑哥再次镇楼!  


 until you come and sit awhile with me 

——<You Raise Me Up>


考场管理很正规,设备很正常,照片中的同学看到了不要打我,哈哈哈哈哈


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2016.6.4 托福考题解析


阅读


1.讲了一只我一直都没有记下来名字的长脖子恐龙(原谅我,捂脸……),文章刚开始的时候有一张图片,画出了恐龙的轮廓。与众不同的是图上标出了恐龙脑袋上有一个凸起,看图就能感觉出来这篇文章是一个说明型的文章,可以参照的托福文章为<TPO48 Determining Dinosaur Diet>


核心内容:


(1)长脖子恐龙有与众不同的消化系统。牙齿相对于mammals 来说不发达。具体我们参照<TPO48 Determining Dinosaur Diet> 对于牙齿和消化系统的描述。


(2)长脖子恐龙吃东西的时候注重营养和质量


(3)长脖子恐龙脑袋上的凸起有很多用途,可以制造声音和闻到气味,一方面可以寻找食物,另一方面可以躲避天敌。


2. 美国关于industrial revolution各种促进手段,包括legal和patent,并且和Europe的industrial revolution做对比,主要突出美国的高效和优势。这篇文章是一个历史型的文章,并不难理解,可以参考的托福文章为 <OG Artisans and Industrialization>, <TPO6 Powering the Industrial Revolution>, <TPO18 Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia>, <TPO26 Energy and the Industrial Revolution>, 。


工业革命是从手工业到机器制造的转换,最早发生于英国,19世纪早期传到法国,从1760年开始,到1820-1840年之间,期间最重要的是纺织业,而纺织业也是第一个使用现代生产方法的产业。


工业革命几乎影响了人们生活的方方面面,人们的收入升高,生活质量升高等等,当然也有人认为同期发生在英国的农业革命也是提升人们生活质量的因素,这里暂不讨论,先默认为工业革命吧(毕竟这篇文章是在讲工业革命对吧)。


工业革命产业包括:纺织、冶金、蒸汽能、机床、化学、水泥、煤气照明、玻璃制造、造纸机、农业、矿业、交通(运河、道路、铁路)


在1840年-1870年开始了第二次工业革命,也叫做科技革命,主要是蒸汽交通、大规模生产机器和蒸汽驱动工厂的出现使得科技和经济随之增长。第二次工业革命的产业包括了:铁、钢、铁路、电、机床、造纸、石油、化学、海洋科技、橡胶、自行车、汽车、应用科学、化肥、引擎和涡轮机、通讯、现代商业管理;


Legal:


美国工业革命的法律方面主要源于英国,法律用来给企业家创业。英国在工业革命中的法律具体表现在:英格兰和苏格兰经济一体化后拥有和平稳定时期,英格兰和苏格兰交易畅通,合同,合伙公司以及资本主义自由市场。


在美国,1815年,手工业转化为以供应地区间的和全国性的市场为目的的作坊和工厂。工业革命的先锋也是纺织业。1810年代在马萨诸塞州的沃尔瑟姆引进动力织机之后,工厂生产法开始在纺织业中实行。1830年之后,发明家和企业家发明了新式机器,使用了新的生产组织方法,工厂生产法逐渐扩展到了其它工业行业。虽然英国是法律的开创者,但美国发展的更快,效率更高。


Patent: intellectual property rights in the form of patents


英国法律系统(The English legal system)的成熟给专利法打造了基础。发明家可以从立法机构获得专利权,第一个获得专利的是Samuel Winslow,在1641年,专利是制造盐的方法。


专利的作用主要是使得竞争对手不能制造、使用、买卖专利的内容等。


3. 美国高速公路的特征及优劣势分析。


主要优势:减少车辆碰撞,加快交通速度,增加运输货物的数量


主要劣势:车辆燃料使用量增加,环境污染严重,交通系统单一化及地区被分割,城市架构被改变,加大了实际的通勤距离


这是一篇有好坏评价的说明文,内容可以参考<TPO33 Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth-Century United States>,文章类型可以参考<TPO22 Spartina>, <TPO30 Role of Play in Development>


对于美国的交通来说,主要组成为:高速公路、运河和铁路。


1800年至1830年是早期美国史上的收费公路时代。建筑队新建或改建了数千英里的全天候铺石公路(用岩石或碎石铺设路面的公路),其中绝大多数在北部各州。收费公路时代与运河时代相交迭。运河时代以伊利运河取得惊人成就而开始。这条运河由奥尔巴尼至布法罗,于1825年竣工。到1850年,美国已有3700英里的运河,其中大部分也在北部。运河时代又和铁路时代相衔接。修筑铁路的热潮始于1830年由巴尔的摩向西的第一条铁路通车之后,到1850年代,这一热潮达到了高峰。在1840年,美国就有3328英里的铁路了,比最早拥有铁路的英国还长。到1860年,美国的铁路长度已接近31000英里,相当于世界其它各国铁路的总和。


由于出现全国性的市场,交通运输的改善促使农场主和制造商生产走向专业化和批量化(即高产量低单位成本)。在南北战争爆发前40年里,粮食总产量翻了四番,其中出售的商品粮(即非自给粮)所占的比率提高了近一倍。尽管1820年-1860年期间农业劳动力由占全劳力的76%降至57%,农民仍能养活迅速膨胀的城市人口。在这40年里,城市人口的增长速度比农村人口快三倍。1820年城市人口只占总人口数的7%,到1860年就增加到20%。这是美国历史上城市发展速度最快的时期。


一个有趣的事情:


1861年-1865年,马克·吐温自密苏里州出发,沿内布达拉加州——犹他州——内华达州——加利福尼亚州展开了他的美国西部之旅。这次旅行中的见闻,后来就成了半自传体作品 《苦行记》,这本书可以说是一份了解美国特定时代社会历史状况的极为丰富的材料。


高考结束及即将进入暑假的你们,想要更全面的了解美国,陈小睿推荐看一些和美国历史有关的书籍:《美国种族简史》托马斯·索威尔、《美国大萧条》默里·罗斯巴德、《决战葛底斯堡》迈克尔·夏拉。


当然,我更推荐大家去一次美国

From Miami to Key West

From Carson City to LakeTahoe

阅读


词汇题

1.integrated = combined


例句:


The fact that ecological communities are indeed, recognizable clusters of species led some early ecologists, particularly those living in the beginning of the twentieth century, to claim that communities are highly integrated, precisely balanced assemblages.<TPO35 What is a community?>


The Whigs were strongest in the towns,cities,and those rural areas that were fully integrated into the market economy,whereas Democrats dominated areas of semisubsistence farming that were more isolated and languishing economically.<OG Nineteenth-Century Politics in the United States>


2. sabotage = intentionally damage


3. hasten = sped up


重复2016.5.7 hasten = hurry


4. dismiss = reject


重复2012.11.18


例句:


Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured.<TPO47 Roman Cultural Influence on Britain>


Thus, communicators need to know the nature and extent of recipients’ knowledge and belief in order to design messages that will not be dismissed or misinterpreted.<LSAT真题6>


5. nevertheless = even so


例句:


Trade, nevertheless, was probably one of many variables that led to the emergence of palace economies in Minoan Crete.<TPO41 Trade and Early State Formation>


Nevertheless, dolphins do not seem to have a real language like ours. Unlike humans, dolphins probably cannot convey very complex messages.<TPO36 Cetacean intelligence>


6. alter = change


例句:


Nineteenth-century immigration drastically altered the cultural landscape as settlers of predominantly British stock were joined by Central Europeans and Chinese, many attracted by the 1849 gold rush in California.<美国的历史>


In stride piano, the left hand plays alternating single notes and chords that move up and down the scale while the right hand plays solo melodies, accompanying rhythms, and interesting chordal passages.<Jazz>


例题:The word “alteration” in the passage is closest in meaning to


○ imperfection

○ replacement

○ change

○ duplication


7. continuous = unceasing


例句:


Guthrie has also demonstrated that the landscape must have been subject to intense and continuous winds, especially in winter.<TPO45 The Beringia Landscape>


Darwin' s original thesis, and the viewpoint supported by evolutionary gradualists, is that species change continuously but slowly and in small increments.<TPO30 The Pace of Evolutionary Change>


例题:The word “periodically” in the passage is closest in the meaning to


○ continuously

○ quickly

○ regularly

○ carefully


8. systematically = methodically


例句:


The systematic study of this art is a relatively new discipline in Australia.<TPO23 Rock Art of the Australia Aborigines>


Information on temperature, rainfall, and other aspects of the climate that can be inferred from the systematic changes in properties is usually referred to as proxy data.<TPO10 Variations in the Climate>


9. advocate = support


重复2008.6.22 2009.6.5 2009.8.30 2015.4.12 advocated=promoted


例句:


Presociological thinkers like Frederick Law Olmsted, the founder of the movement to build parks and recreation areas in cities, and Jacob Riis, an advocate of slum reform, urged the nation's leaders to invest in improving the urban environment, building parks and beaches, and making better housing available to all.<TPO36 A model of urban expansion>


10. ideally = perfectly


例句:


When considering quantities, we would ideally like to have some estimates for overall production from particular sites of pottery manufacture and for overall consumption at specific settlements.<TPO29 Characteristics of Roman Pottery>


11. flee = run away


例句:


Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara.


例题:The word “fleeing” in the passage is closest in meaning to


○ afraid of

○ displaced by

○ running away from

○ responding to


12. parallel = happen at the same time and rate


例句:


Extensive mountain ranges were formed from compression of the crust, forming long ridges with parallel valleys spaced craters were spilt and pulled apart.<2012.8.19 Callisto and Ganymede>


Her interest in color and light paralleled the research of several artists of the period, notably the painter Seurat, famed for his Pointillist technique of creating a sense of shapes and light on canvas by applying extremely small dots of color rather than by painting lines.<OG Loie Fuller>

词汇题


听力

1.学生和教授商量两件事,一是宿舍楼下要建停车场,从宿舍往外看到的景色就不好了啊,各种矫情之后学生表示我们需要绿化,请种树,教授em了一下后说,我也这么觉得就同意了;学生发现教授还挺好说话,立马说二是冬天太冷要装暖器(其中应该还有涉及到宿舍隔音的事情,但我恍惚了一小下……原谅我),教授表示我觉得这也是一个好想法啊,但臣妾做不到啊,因为没钱,也提出了解决问题的方式就是在开会的时候提一下这个问题征求领导的意见。


2.教授说在飓风到达陆地之前测量飓风的强度,这对于挽救生命和避免重大的损失很重要。但对于飓风强度的影响因素很多,比如风速的变化,那么还有什么办法可以测量飓风的强度呢?

这时候有学生说:我们让飞机飞到飓风中央去测量?(刚听到的时候就觉得脑残)

但是……但是……教授说这是可行的,飞机到达飓风的风眼确实可以测量出飓风的强度,但是这么做需要冒很大的风险而且每次实行的成本也很高。(请想象我当时的表情但我很快缓过来了)

学生说风险是肯定的,但是为什么成本高?

教授说测量飓风的飞机必须非常结实能扛风,而且必须准备非常精密的仪器才可以,这就导致了飞机的造价非常昂贵,100万美金吧,而且每次飞行需要5万美金,出动十架飞机,所以你看着办?虽然我们可以利用得到的数据去避免其他的损失,但是这依旧是一项昂贵的花费,而且咱们也不能一有飓风就这么干。

现在研究人员发现了一种性价比更高的方法去测量,这种方法几乎没有风险而且对设备的要求也没有那么高,研究人员利用水下麦克风在水中接收由飓风造成的声波,同样可以很精确的测量飓风的强度。

学生问风在地面吹,在水下怎么能听得到风的声音的?

教授说飓风的影响不只是地面,事实上飓风的能量所造成的波动是巨大的,强烈的风速会让水不断涌动,这种力量会在水下产生一种独特的声波,而这种声波正可以用来测量飓风强度。就算地面上飓风的强度再大,水下测量工作也可以顺利进行,而且这种花费相比检测机简直微乎其微。


学生觉得很好,但是也很好奇他们是怎么想到这种测量方法的。

教授说我之前讲过,将复杂的气象问题放入科学规律之中,好几年前两个科学家的一次对话中这个方法就出现了。但是人们都知道风速会在水中产生声波,但是没有人将这个规律和测量飓风强度结合起来,直到这两位专家一拍即合,决定为这个理论寻找支撑理论。直到1999年,在大西洋附近的一场飓风为他提供了实验的机会,当时在水中测量到的飓风所引起的水下地震所带来声波得出的强度误差仅在5%以下,这和检测机的结果一样。

这套题在网络上已经全文全题漏出了,大家可以搜索了解就好,版权问题不放原文和题目答案,也不需要仔细研究,再考的几率约等于0


3. 美国历史课:关于migration。可以参考阅读<TPO20 Westward Migration>, <TPO24 Moving into Pueblos> 有两个方面:push factors和pull factors。美国在二战以后吸引了很多穷人,因为美国经济好啊。在1940s-1980s有大量的人迁移到美国北部,很少有人去Sunbelt地区(这里出了一幅图)

sunbelt地区的城市之间离的太远,但到了1980s,人们喜欢到sunbelt地区了,因为这里暖啊,后来sunbelt地区water和农业的问题解决了,工业化也使得水坝提提供水资源,还有空调等,人们都从纽约等都市迁移到南部阳光地带了


4. 学生和教授聊天,聊着聊着就被教授抓到他不好好参加discussion,学生说我事情太多,选了5门课(没敢往下说具体的,希望教授意会学生很忙所以不参加)。教授最后说你这样不行啊,课堂讨论占成绩的一半,你还想不想过了。学生非常聪明但让人感觉很突兀的说他的term paper要选topic,基本套路都出来了,题目很简单听完直接做就好。


5.主要讲乙醇用来替代石油作为清洁能源,乙醇可以用玉米做原料来生产。从科学上来说乙醇是很好,但存在几个缺点,玉米是给人吃的,如果把原作为食物的玉米用来做清洁能源,就会产生导致人类饥饿,得不偿失。之后还提到了在巴西种植玉米及生产乙醇的细节。


6. 艺术史,介绍苏格兰的早期雕刻艺术,雕塑中有线条雕刻,意味着这个雕刻是私人所有,并且说到了雕刻的发源地,并且是世代传承的,象征着权利。进一步来说提到了古罗马艺术对苏格兰艺术的影响。罗马曾经占领了苏格兰,所以对苏格兰的艺术也有一定的影响。

听力


口语

1.Describe one or two changes in your life five years from now on. Please include specific examples and details in your explanation.


参考回答1:——本回答来自于美联乐闻托福口语女神Tina老师


The biggest change in my life five years from now would be my responsibility. As a freshman in University, I have tons of assignments to finish everyday, exams to take every month, all my responsibilities are related with getting a good score and a great study result. I don't have to worry about any other things in life, like the pressure from work. But as time goes by, in five years, I will have to face the fact of having a full range of responsibility at work, I even can see myself learning in a position, communicating with my colleagues and finding better solutions of each task I'm taking. My whole life focus would shift from one extreme to the other, that leads to different pressure in life.


参考回答2:


Actually, I’m going to move to another city to work. Because I was not satisfied with the management of my last employer, once during dinner a friend of mine mentioned an opportunity at the company he serves. The job appeals to me quite much and the chance to experience life in another city is quite exciting too. It’s in the southern part of my country, this new job, where the climate is milder and more humid than where I stay now and the food there is also very good, so I’m really looking forward to living there and I guess I’ll stay there for a few years.


2.管理者对于员工应该经常严格检查他们的工作好还是给他们自由,偶尔检查的好?


参考回答1:——本回答来自于美联乐闻托福口语女神Tina老师


As far as I'm conceded, an employer should only spot check their employees during the day. Employers should have enough faith in the their employees to know that they are getting the job done correctly. In the order for this to be successful, both employer and employee need to be sufficiently trained and properly motivated in the their work. Employers who constantly check on, or micromanage their staff breed distrust along with a low sense of self esteem and loyalty. Micro managers are often unskilled managers and not confident with their abilities as managers. Thus, they tend to be hyper vigilant with their teams. Employers who trust their staff do not have to oversee them as much, which leads to greater trust and an overall increase in productivity.


参考回答2:


I think it’s better to give some freedom to the employees and check their work on a regular base, but not too frequently, because the checking process is actually a kind waste of time: I mean, the checking process itself does not create value, taking the time that could be spent on productive work, especially when there’re seldom mistakes found. Also, some freedom will make the employees feel more respected and trusted, so they’ll be more willing to contribute to the work. But I do agree that regular check is necessary to ensure all the things are going towards the expected direction, just not too frequent.


3.教授给学生发邮件让他们每个人想两个问题发给他,可以让他们更认真的阅读材料,准备课堂讨论,还能更好的找到term paper的话题。男生同意,因为一般大家在讨论前都不怎么准备,在课堂上浪费很多时间,而且通过阅读可以知道自己喜欢哪方面的话题,更好的提前准备term paper。


参考回答:


The professor requires students to send him two questions before the discussion and the man thinks it’s a good idea. Firstly, he says this does help students to better prepare for the discussion by reading more in advance and to avoid wasting time during the class. Secondly, he agrees that this will make it easy for students to decide on the topic for the term paper, because this push them to explore more through reading.


4.有的动物幼年和成年长得不一样,比如一种鸟,成年是白色的,更容易去捕鱼而且不容易被发现,而刚出生几个月的时候是这种鸟的羽毛是黑色的,因为成年鸟会attack其他成年鸟,这样可以防止受伤害。


参考回答:


The professor uses a bird as an example to explain physical different between young and adult. The bird is white in adult form, so it’s hard to spot when catching fish. But the same species is black till it’s born several months. That’s because sometimes adult birds fight each other, so the black protects the juvenile birds from such attack. So this is how physical different works.


5.男生暑期得到了一份工作,所以打算在学校旁边租房,而且在和女生说话的时候故意透露了自己很喜欢做饭的事情,但房东说厨房是不能用的。于是男生觉得自己可以去朋友租的房里做饭,但感觉很weird and inconvenient,而如果每天出去吃又太贵想省钱。女生说你好厉害,虽然很遗憾不能做饭但可以在学校cafeteria吃,有套餐噢,男生说,这的确是一个好拌饭,但是学校的学校cafeteria太远了。(然后果然你们就只能结束对话了)


参考回答:


The man faces a problem that the kitchen of the apartment he rent for the summer cannot be used. He has two solutions: one is to go to his friend’s apartment to cook and the other is to eat at the school cafeteria. I recommend him to cook at his friend’s place because they can eat together and share the expense, and maybe they can take turns to do the cooking, making things easier. The school cafeteria is too far, so going there to eat is really not a good idea.


6.两种记忆,declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge,例如一辆自行车,了解自行车的形态和部件,属于declarative knowledge,而知道自行车如何运作,属于procedural knowledge。如果不分清楚这两种记忆的话会导致错误的决定。比如足球队需要教练,往往会从踢球很厉害很成功的球员中进行选拔,然而会踢球和会当教练是两回事,有些时候好球员当不了好教练(怎么踢得下来我上)这就是两种knowledge的区别。


参考回答:


According to the lecture, human’s memory are divided into two types. The first is declarative knowledge, like the face of somebody you remember, so you can reproduce it by describing it in words or drawing a picture. The second is procedural knowledge, means what you remember can be applied when the same situation happens, in other words, you repeat the procedure when appropriate. Take the football player and the coach as an example. A good player often has brilliant procedural knowledge about how to deal with the ball in various situations on the field but to be a good coach, procedural knowledge about playing football is also important, but it’s not that important or it’s not enough because a coach has to have the declarative knowledge in order to convey his strategy and tactics to the players.

口语


写作

综合写作:


金字塔有两个墓穴(chambers),还有四个窄通道(shafts),科学家一直好奇它们的用途。


阅读:


1. 进空气给建筑工人呼吸,工人在里面很难呼吸,而且工人会在work space里面用lights,用fires来light,特别消耗空气;


2. 四个孔对着代表上帝的星星,不同的星星对应着或者是代表着specific gods;


3. 作为一个passage way让国王的灵魂(spirit)转世(enter afterlife)。


听力:


1. 下面两个chamber根本没通到外面,shafts离外墙还有几米的距离,空气进不来。


2. shafts对应星星的理论是在建完金字塔才形成的(later time),而工人们建的时候是(earlier time)。

3. 灵魂本身是可以穿墙的,没有必要存在通道。


独立写作:


The most important thing that government can do to improve health care is to clean the environment.


【以下来自美联乐闻托福写作男神,白宜玄 Ben Nevis老师对DuDu老师的评价】


这道题目支持显然好写很多,只需要说明环境对于人们的身体健康有哪些好处就可以了。不过作者反其道而行,而且还说的头头是道,可以说是一种境界。而整个文章中比较出众莫过于举例。作者从最开始的孟德斯鸠和杰佛逊引出政府,后来又指出腹泻,糖尿病,甚至是近视等和环境保护无关的但是又很常见的疾病。甚至在一些和主题并没有直接关系的地方,作者也能顺手给出细节,让语言变得“可视化”,比如“reusing the prickle jars and plastic bags”,“the walking path enveloped by eucalyptus trees”。这些例子让文章变得非常生动,也能够很好的说服读者。


另外因为这些(平时积累的)素材,作者的词汇量显得极大,这是值得模仿的做法。在积累素材的同时,很多的表达方法也会被积累起来,这是一件一举两得的事情。最后作者的语言驾驭显得非常自然,比如在书面语中点缀着一些口语化的表达( “isn’t it?),再比如对于比喻的运用 “bulldoze”. 总之,这是一篇well-written essay, 也是一篇better-to-learn的essay.

写作


篇后唠叨几句



1. 只要你不是第一次考,在考场上时都应该学会利用考场规则,而不是被考场规则束缚。


2.大部分觉得自己状态不好、只是马虎不细致和本次题目有史以来最难的心态,都来自于自己的能力不足。


3. 超常发挥=本身能力-考试期望


4. 心乱,做不了模考,看不进书,就关上电脑和书本,用铅笔和A4纸写作文,然后再输入到word文档里。


5. 不要期望考试技巧能雪中送炭,能用上技巧秒杀的题目不超过10%;但考试技巧绝对是锦上添花,特别是只剩下30s就要进入下一个科目,而你还剩下3道题没做完的时候。


6. 是的,第五条是硬广告,欢迎你来参加美联乐闻的托福暑期课程,早点报名,因为很快就会没你的位置了。


本文作者,陈睿,江湖人称陈小睿,英文名很Local,叫做Ray


美联乐闻教学经理,托福教师


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