【兆龙翻译】移民安家必知:美国家庭的住房情况在过去几十年中有何变化?

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内容来源:Business Insider


11 charts that show how American houses have changed since the 1970s

11张图表告诉你上世纪70年代以来美国住房的演变

 

Houses have been getting bigger and fancier for the last several decades, and we have the charts to prove it. Every year, the Census Bureau releases data on the characteristics of newly constructed homes, and they recently released info on houses built in 2015.

历经过往几十年的演变,美国的住房已经显得越来越宽敞和漂亮,下面的图表就可以佐证。美国国家统计局每年都会发布有关新建住房特点的各种数据,而最近发布的是2015年新建住房的数据。

 

We decided to take a look at how different aspects of newly completed single family houses have changed over the last several decades.

下面我们就来看一下美国新建的独户住房在过去的几十年中是如何在各个方面不断演变的。


卧室数量

The number of bedrooms in single-family houses has tended to increase. In 2015, about 47 percent of newly built houses had four or more bedrooms.

独户住房的卧室数量呈现增长趋势。2015年,大约47%的新建住房拥有四个或更多卧室。


浴室数量

The number of bathrooms has also tended to go up. About 38 percent of houses completed in 2015 had at least three bathrooms.

浴室数量同样呈现增长趋势。2015年,大约38%的新建住房拥有至少三个浴室。


住房层数

Houses have been getting taller. About 55 percent of houses completed in 2015 have at least two stories, compared to just 23 percent in 1973.

住房的层数也普遍增加。2015年,大约55%的新建住房拥有至少两层,而1973年这一比例仅为23%。


中位面积

The floor area of houses has also increased over the years. The median house built in 2015 had an area of about 2,467 square feet, about 62 percent larger than the median in 1973 of 1,525 square feet.

住房的面积在过往数年中同样呈增长态势。2015年,新建住房的中位面积约为2,467平方英尺,相较1973年的1,525平方英尺增加了62%。


车库和车棚

As houses have gotten bigger, so have garages. The overwhelming majority of houses now have a garage big enough for at least two cars, while back in the ’70s there was more of a mix.

随着住房面积的增加,车库也变得越来越大。目前的绝大多数住房的车库都至少能容纳两辆车,而在上世纪70年代车库的情况则显得更为参差不齐。


空调

Air conditioning has become much more common. Just under half of new houses in 1973 had air conditioning, while by 2015 about 93 percent did.

空调的使用已经变得极为普遍。2015年,93%的新建住房配备有空调,而1973年只有不到半数的新建住房配备了空调。


供暖系统类型

Most houses built since the ’70s have forced-air heating systems, but since the turn of the century or so, heat pumps have become more popular.

上世纪70年代的住房大多使用强制送风采暖系统,而自2000年左右以来,人们开始更普遍地使用热泵采暖。


采暖燃料类型

Nearly all homes are heated with either gas or electricity, and the balance between those two has shifted over the years.

现在,几乎所有住房都使用燃气或电力采暖,而两者的使用比例在过去数年内发生了不小的变化。


壁炉

Fireplaces had a big moment in the 1980s: In 1989, about 2/3 of newly built houses had at least one fireplace. By 2015, that had fallen to just under half of new homes.

上世纪80年代是壁炉使用的高峰期。1989年,三分之二的新建住房中拥有至少一个壁炉。而在2015年,只有不到一半的新建住宅拥有壁炉。


主要外墙材料

While brick and stucco have maintained their modest popularity as external wall materials, wood has fallen out of favor, replaced by other materials, mostly vinyl siding and fiber cement.

尽管砖和灰泥仍然在外墙材料中普遍使用,但木质外墙材料已经淡出了舞台,取而代之的是诸如乙烯基壁板和纤维水泥等其它材料。


中位面积

Basements and crawl spaces have become less common since the ’70s, while slab foundations have become more popular.

上世纪70年代以来,地下室和管线夹层在住房中的使用逐渐减少,而相较之下,板式地基得到了更为广泛的使用。


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