瑞典的预制木结构已经到了逆天的程度

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© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

瑞士的Treehugger有许多让人着迷之处,例如模块式预制装配式房屋、高层木结构建筑和数字设计等。在北美,人们通常很少能在一个地方发现所有这些特点,然而在瑞典,这几乎成为一个地区的标配。

Lindbäcks是瑞士北部一家拥有90年历史的公司。它将模块式建筑真正地带入一个全新高度,平均每周生产20套公寓、学生公寓和老年住宅。模块宽4150cm,长8950cm,是最适宜的尺寸。从表面上看,这些模块和北美厂家生产出来的一样,实际上却是截然不同的产品。

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

Lindbäcks工厂的自动化水平远超北美地区,其加工完成的框架与施工现场完成的几乎如出一辙。工厂采用“操作屏到机器”的方式-将木材放入大型的机器,机器自动对齐并固定完成结构框架,任何复杂程度都不是问题。整个过程无需任何图纸或卷尺,都是自动完成:每17分钟即可加工一面填充了保温材料的墙体,包括墙体上的窗户(实际是将窗户放好后在其周围安装固定墙体框架)。

© Randek

每个产业绝大部分都已经实现现代工业生产的自动化和现代化,但房地产业除外,仍处于上世纪的水平。瑞典工匠Randek让整个生产过程实现自动化,并对自动化生产成果与使用钉枪或锤子的工人的工作成果进行比较。

© Screw adjustment of window 调整窗户上的钉子

房屋的每个构件都有考虑到。在北美,窗户基本上是从室外钉接固定好;而这里的窗户是采用可调节的紧固件进行固定,以保证窗户的水平度,同时将来需要时可以从室内进行拆除或更换。这些窗户是设计为可以移除的。同样,电线也是安装在电线管中,可更改,还可升级。

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

Lindbäcks信奉衍生自日本丰田汽车集团缔造的“精益生产”理念,精简生产过程中一切无用、多余的东西。专注于每一步,提升安全指数,提高产品质量并实现快速交货。

生产过程中保持秩序,并从错误中吸取教训。Erik Lindbäck说道,我们保持车间整洁,登记工具使用情况,尽可能合理地完成所有事情。工作量较之前并没有增加,却提高了产品价值。


© Lindbäcks Architects guide

In North America, most modules are constructed with platform framing, where the wall sits on top of the floor and the ceiling on top of the wall. But because Lindbäcks designs for up to six storeys high, there will be a lot of pressure across the grain of the floor framing, so the floors and ceilings are hung inside the walls. You wouldn’t think that it would be a big deal, but wood is stronger on its end, and just that little bit of compression is beyond their tolerances.

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

But the show is really on the sidewalk, where all these modules are being assembled into serious buildings. They are not cookie-cutter, all clad in different materials, designed by different architects.

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

The thing that both inspires and aggravates me so much is that this kind of mid-rise wood frame housing is exactly what we need in cities across North America from Seattle to Toronto to New York City.

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

It goes up quickly, is extremely energy efficient, very high quality and perfect, not for the downtown cores, but for those main streets now filled with one and two storey buildings. For new walkable medium density developments.

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

It’s built at what I call the Goldilocks density:

…dense enough to support vibrant main streets with retail and services for local needs, but not too high that people can't take the stairs in a pinch. Dense enough to support bike and transit infrastructure, but not so dense to need subways and huge underground parking garages. Dense enough to build a sense of community, but not so dense as to have everyone slip into anonymity.

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

Back in Sweden, Lindbäcks is building a new factory:

Located in Piteå harbor, this plant is designed with the demands of tomorrow in mind and will support the production of the most sustainable, and cost effective custom buildings we’ve ever produced. The factory’s design emphasizes sustainability, and has been designed to use renewable energy for the majority of our energy demand. At the turn of the year 2017/2018, we’ll commission this facility and triple our output.

© Lindbäcks Group AB, Sweden

And, by the way, fifty percent of their new hires for this factory are women.

It’s frustrating, looking at this and comparing it to what we build in North America, where we build it and how we put it together. Because Lindbäcks is doing the kinds of things we just dream about over here.


文章来源:http://www.treehugger.com/

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