曼哈顿悬日(Manhattanhenge)

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如果这个长周末你正好在纽约,千万别错过大好的机会去欣赏曼哈顿悬日。今年夏季的这一景观会在5月29和5月30日的下午8:12出现。


曼哈顿悬日(Manhattanhenge)是指在美国纽约曼哈顿出现的自然现象。由于曼哈顿街道大多呈棋盘式布局,在每年的5月28日和7月12日(或13日),日落时阳光将洒满曼哈顿的所有的东西向街道,呈现一幅壮观的景象,时间长达15分钟。而在每年的12月5日和1月8日,这样的景观将伴随着日出而出现。


Manhattanhenge — sometimes referred to as the Manhattan Solstice — is an event during which the setting sun is aligned with the east–west streets of the main street grid of ManhattanNew York City. This occurs twice a year, on dates evenly spaced around thesummer solstice. The first Manhattanhenge occurs around May 28, while the second occurs around July 12.


曼哈顿悬日的英文名称Manhattanhenge是美国自然历史博物馆的天体物理学家奈尔·德葛拉司·泰森(Neil deGrasse Tyson)于2002年首次使用的。他将曼哈顿(Manhattan)与英国著名的巨石阵(Stonehenge)的词根henge结合,创造了这一词语。

这些年,这一景观越来越热。


The term "Manhattanhenge" was popularized by Neil deGrasse Tyson, an astrophysicist at the American Museum of Natural Historyand a native New Yorker. It is a reference to Stonehenge, a prehistoric monument located in Wiltshire, England, which was constructed so that the rising sun, seen from the center of the monument at the time of the summer solstice, aligns with the outer "Heel Stone".

The event has attracted increasing attention in recent years.





In the following table, "full sun" refers to occurrences of the full solar disk just above the horizon, and "half sun" refers to occurrences of the solar disk partially hidden below the horizon.

DateTimeType
May 31, 20118:17 p.m.Full sun
July 12, 20118:25 p.m.Full sun
July 13, 20118:25 p.m.Half sun
May 29, 20128:17 p.m.Half sun
May 30, 20128:16 p.m.Full sun
July 11, 20128:24 p.m.Full sun
July 12, 20128:25 p.m.Half sun
May 28, 20138:16 p.m.Half sun
May 29, 20138:15 p.m.Full sun
July 12, 20138:23 p.m.Full sun
July 13, 20138:24 p.m.Half sun
May 29, 20148:16 p.m.Half sun
May 30, 20148:18 p.m.Full sun
July 11, 20148:24 p.m.Full sun
July 12, 20148:25 p.m.Half sun
May 29, 20158:12 p.m.Half sun
May 30, 20158:12 p.m.Full sun
July 12, 20158:20 p.m.Full sun
July 13, 20158:21 p.m.Half sun
May 29, 20168:12 p.m.Half sun[4]
May 30, 20168:12 p.m.Full sun[4]
July 11, 20168:20 p.m.Full sun[4]
July 12, 20168:20 p.m.Half sun[4]


在相似街道格局的其他都市也有相似的现象。通常采取棋盘式道路规划的都市较易发生。其城市如下列所述:

  • 巴尔的摩—3月25日与9月18日的日出;以及3月12日与9月29日的日落。

  • 芝加哥—9月25日,有Chicagohenge之称。

  • 多伦多—10月25日与2月16日,有Torontohenge之称。

  • 蒙特利尔—7月12日,有Montrealhenge之称。

  • 高雄—1月29日。


The same phenomenon happens in other cities with a uniform street grid and an unobstructed view of the horizon, with each instance depending on the city's grid plan, surrounding topography and flora (for instance, a city surrounded by hills, mountains or forestry would not experience the effect even if its streets were laid out perfectly). Such occurrences would coincide with the vernal and autumnal equinox only if the grid plan were laid out precisely north-south and east-west, and perfectly aligned with true north as opposed to magnetic north. The situation in Baltimore comes fairly close, with its sunrises on March 25 and September 18 and sunsets on March 12 and September 29.[5] In Chicago, the setting sun lines up with the grid system on September 25 and March 20, a phenomenon known similarly asChicagohenge.[6] In Toronto, the setting sun lines up with the east–west streets on October 25 and February 16, a phenomenon known locally as Torontohenge.[7] InMontreal, there may be a Montrealhenge each year on July 12.[8] When the architects designing the centre of Milton Keynes in the UK discovered its main street almost framed the rising sun on Midsummer Day, they consulted Greenwich Observatory to obtain the exact angle required at their latitude, and persuaded their engineers to shift the grid of roads a few degrees.

"MIThenge" is the twice-yearly event when the setting sun can be seen across the length of the "Infinite Corridor", in the central campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, Massachusetts. That event was first advertised in 1975, in a poster that included a drawing of Stonehenge.


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