文勇专栏 ▏托福口语task1,task2想不到好例子怎么办?

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今天的文勇专栏是解答托福口语问题的最后一篇,欢迎关注刘文勇老师的个人公众号:刘文勇(liuwenyonglasedu2),大家有什么托福问题,都可以去提问哦~以下是之前答疑的汇总:


文勇专栏  ▏你口语答疑四

文勇专栏 ▏托福口语一秒蒙逼,毫无思路?方法来啦!

文勇专栏 ▏你真要为练口语找个外国男(女)朋友?

文勇专栏 ▏托福口语怎样边组织语言边流畅地说出来?

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力Lecture的难度在于它的学术性吗?

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力听到的全没考,考的全没听到?

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力听了后面忘前面,听不出逻辑怎么办!

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力到底要不要记笔记?

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力问答


   HORIZO
task1、2中很难想到好的例子。而且感觉自己说的时候一直在重复。


dear HORIZON,你好。


你的问题应该分为两段,我想先和你来讨论“如何在task 1、2中想到好的例子”。


回答这个问题,更重要的是想清楚“到底什么是好的例子”。亲身经历好不好?除去部分专门要求写亲身经历的话题之外(如:“Talk about one way your personality has changed since you were a child. Use examples and details to explain your answer.(TPO22)”),大部分情况下还是名人案例优先。这事实上纯粹是为了增加评分人的好感度而出现的偏好。这种例子源自于自己平时的积累,我在前面也已经说过了,这里就不再多说。


事实上,“好的例子”包含这样两个方面的特质:其一是足够的细致,“请你喝东西”和“请你喝一杯美式热咖啡”给人的感受是大不相同的。


其二是要足够的一致,也就是说例子与其论述的话题要在论证方向上完美一致。


这一点在写作手稿中有足够的描述,我建议你翻翻看。


 


下面详细说说你所提到的“觉得自己一直在重复”。这是一个常见的问题,千万不要小瞧它。本质上说,这个问题与你的上一个问题有内在联系:正因为你脑子里只知道举例这一种论述方法,所以你才会在想不到例子的情况下感到panic(也就是问题一)。


我想问问大家:如果让你说一个段落,却不让举例子,你还能想出哪些与举例一样重要、一样有效的论述方法吗?



(注意:是论述方法,并列、递进、转折都是提出了一个新的观点,新旧内容之间并不存在相互论证关系。)


“定义”其实就是对话题当中的某个概念(往往就是在口语题中提及的话题词)所做的简要说明,展开讨论,塑造观点。范例如下:


Talk about a skill or ability that youconsider especially important for a student to have. Use details and examplesto explain your answer.

——TPO 19

参考答案:


I used to have trouble with doing homeworkwhen I was a young child because I did not make enough time for it. I wanted toplay with my friends, and I delayed homework until the last minute. Therefore,I believe that time organization makes up on important skill for a studentbecause this ability helps reduce procrastination. Procrastination is the enemyof the student, lowering both the quality of the work and the volume of the work. If a student can find a way to plan his/her activities throughout the dayand adhere strictly to this to-do-list, he/she will defeat procrastination andfind a way to improve effectiveness and live a fulfilling life.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“阐述”是对于观点的进一步解释说明。当观点有值得被说明特点/特质/起源时,常使用该方法促使读者更清楚地了解观点。范例如下:


Some people enjoy taking risks and tryingnew things. Others are not adventurous: they are cautious and prefer to avoiddanger. Which behavior do you think is better? Explain why.

——TPO 8

参考答案:


While it is difficult to say what iscorrect in every situation, I believe that being cautious is a better behaviorthan being daring and adventurous. The win-big or lose-big mentality of riskypeople is dangerous; if they win big a few times, they start to think that theycan win more. This can continue until they lose big. Cautious people are more stablein most areas of life. And cautious people are the ones who start the moststable families, and they are more reliable, etc.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“举例”是当抽象化事物(较为概括)的特质通过某些具体事物(较为详尽)表现出来时。举例是口语中最常用到的论证方式。范例如下:


Some people believe that television has hada positive influence on society. Others believe it has had a negative influenceon society. Which do you agree with and why? Use details and examples toexplain your opinion.

——TPO 1

参考答案:


I believe that television has had a mainlypositive effect on society. Television is one of the best ways to conveyinformation to many people. For example, news programs are easy to watch andallow people to effortlessly stay up-to-date with current events. Televisionnews programs cover everything from local events to worldwide news, and arevery convenient for people to watch before or after work. In addition, I thinkthat television is good for family life. Families can often sit together andwatch television, and in a time when teenagers rebel against their parents andseek independence, TV offers a nice way for family members to stay close to oneother.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“细分”就是把一个大的讨论范围(合集)按照某个标准划分为若干小的讨论范围(子集),它很实用,既可以用于从总论点划分出分论点,也可以用于将分论点展开成主体段时做拆分。在口语中,分成两个子论点的情况较为常见。有鉴于答题时间,我们一般会觉得细分三点就会显得比较局促了。范例如下:


Some college students choose to takecourses in a variety of subject areas in order to get a broad education. Otherschoose to focus on a single subject area in order to have a deeperunderstanding of that area. Which approach to course selection do you think isbetter for students and why?

——TPO 2

参考答案:


To me, college should both broaden anddeepen one’s knowledge. I think that at the beginning of college, perhaps forthe first and second year students, it is good to receive a broad education.Taking a wide range of courses allows these students to become knowledgeableabout many subjects and makes them better-rounded. Once students decide on amajor, focusing on that single subject is the best, as this will allow them totruly excel in the field they choose to enter.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“背景”讨论的是比主体对象更大的东西,对主体对象起到支持或支撑作用。一般有两种提供背景的方法。第一种是较为严格意义上的扩大讨论范围,通过说明“整体”所具有的性质来论证“部分(实际论证对象)”也自然具有同一性质。第二种是提供一个关系稍显松散,只是对要论证的对象有铺垫作用的大的背景信息。口语之中也很常见。范例如下:


Talk about an important experience that yourecently had. Describe what happened and explain why it was important toyou.

——TPO 9

参考答案:


I recently spent a year studying abroad inChina, and I found the experience to be engaging and worthwhile. Living alonein a foreign country allowed me to be truly independent for a year, and I feellike I have matured greatly from the experience. I now know how to bettermanage my money, how to plan my days out, and more. In addition, my Chinesespeaking ability has improved dramatically. Using Chinese to speak to peoplearound me every day helped my Chinese improve a lot, so the effects of my Chinatrip are still with me every day.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


 “总结”是对先前的论述内容进行归纳,标志本段论述结束的节点,再次申明观点。范例如下:


Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? It is important to learn about other cultures. Use details andexamples to explain your opinion.

——TPO 18

参考答案:


I strongly agree that we should learn aboutother cultures. In today’s world, movement of peoples is extremely fluid.People work and live in different places than the one where they grew up, andmillions of people visit new countries every day. In today’s globalized world,it is critical to maintain an open mind and learn about other cultures forbusiness and political success. In the example of the United States, theworld’s most technologically advanced nation, it is strong because of itsdedication to bringing the best from every other culture. Learning about andfrom a different culture than your own can be very productive and beneficial.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“原因”是对观点的由来进行阐述,这有可能是最为常见的观点展开方式之一,可以直接看,范例如下:


Some people think that children should beallowed to watch whatever television programs they choose to. Others think thatparents should exercise control over the television programs their childrenwatch. Which do you agree with? Explain why.

——TPO 11

参考答案:


I agree with the idea that parents shouldhave some control over the television programs watched by children. Thestrongest argument would be that children have immature minds and are eager tocopy what they have seen sometimes. Thus, extreme violence or lewd pornographictelevision shows should not be available to children viewer. It is true that ifchildren truly wanted to watch such shows, they would find a way to watch themanyhow. However, parents should at least exert some basic level of control so thatsuch shows are not accessible easily.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“结果”,显然可分为两种情形进行讨论,即“这个观点会导致什么好的结果”和“与之相悖,又会导致何种坏的结果”。范例如下:


Some people have one career throughouttheir lives. Other people do different kinds of work at different points intheir lives. Which do you think is better? Explain why.

——TPO 6

参考答案:


I believe that having one career for mostof one’s life is better than having different kinds of work at different pointsin life. Changing careers bring a lot of uncertainty along with it. Between thetime gaps of the two different jobs, will you have income? Will you be able tosupport your family? I believe that keeping one type of career is more stableand will always provide money to buy food and necessities for your family.Keeping on type of job is safer, and this is better for supporting a family.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“类比”是用跟甲事物有相似之处的乙事物来描写或说明甲事物,这是一个非常重要的论证方法。一旦在口语之中使用,往往就会特别出彩。范例如下:


Some students prefer to work on classassignments by themselves. Others believe it is better to work in a group.Which do you prefer? Explain why.

——TPO 3

参考答案:


When working on classwork or homeworkassignments, I prefer to work in a group. While I am working, many of mythoughts begin as rough ideas that need more development. When I work in agroup, I am able to tell my friends my ideas and receive their input. Throughthis method, I am able to easily refine my ideas and integrate my friends’ideas into my personal thoughts. The group work is like the military withmutual support. In addition, working with friends makes assignments lesstedious. While homework can sometimes feel like a chore, talking to friendswhile doing it makes the task more enjoyable.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


“名言”是大家很喜欢使用的一种论证法,通过前辈名人的妙语来佐证我们自己的观点,的确能为答案的论证增色不少。范例如下:


Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Why or why not? Use details and examples to explain your answer. Itis more important to study math or science than it is to study art orliterature.

——TPO 5


参考答案:


I disagree with the statement that studyingmath or science is more important than studying art and literature. Althoughstudying math and science will perhaps lead to a better job later in life, Ibelieve it is important to receive a well-round education in a variety ofsubjects. With only a limited knowledge of art and literature, how can someonebe expected to hold an intelligent conversation if something about literatureis brought up and he or she has no input? Picasso said that art is a lie thattells the truth.Balance is the key.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


大家可以看看如下这个参考范例,是否做到了我们刚刚所描述的诸多要求?例子描述得细不细致?在介绍书时除了举例还使用了哪些论述方法?我就不多说了,可以在文章末尾处留言告诉我你的分析,我们再进行进一步交流。


Talk about a book you have read that was important to you for some reason. Explain why the book was important to you.

——TPO-1

参考答案:


One particular book that I always rememberis Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond, a geography professor at UCLA. Thebook is a nonfictional account of human development throughout history. Itfocuses on agriculture, culture, and science as the engines of civilization. Itis a long book about a difficult subject, but the author writes it in a waythat is interesting and fun to read. I learned about many interestingconnections between geography and the rise and fall of different peoplesthroughout human history. It offers me a fresh and grand perspective ofhumanity.


《新托福真题详解——口语分卷(第一册第二版)》


不知道独立口语怎么说 老是结巴

   。



亲爱的句号同学你好:


我猜你说的结巴是由于不熟练导致的。其实在答案一和答案二中我都曾讨论过熟练度的问题,我建议你先看一下答题一链接】【答题二链接】。


我接下来要说的东西尽量与前面说的不一致,但丝毫不意味着现在说的东西比之前说的更重要。克服结巴有一个特别常见的方法——做笔记。很多同学都觉得在每道题目的准备时间太短,除了犯愣之外别的什么都做不了。但实际上对于答题之前的准备时间(1、2题15秒,3、4题30秒,5、6题20秒)官方给出的说明是希望我们利用这个时间来记笔记,进而帮助我们流畅地作答(也就是说不结巴)。如下我给大家罗列TPO-48中6道题目的笔记,请大家看一看,这些笔记是否真的能帮助我们。


Task1


Students study in a variety of ways. Explain how your study habits are different from those of other students you know.


你的笔记




我的笔记


Task 2


Some people like to shop in large grocery stores and department stores. Other people prefer to shop in small specialty stores. Which do you prefer? Explain why.

你的笔记






我的笔记


Task 3


An Art Museum at the University


Many universities have their own art museums, with collections of paintings and sculptures by well-known artists. I think our university should create a similar museum on our own campus. Such a museum would give our students an opportunity to learn to appreciate high-quality fine art. It would be a great way for us to see artworks that we might not have access to other wise. In order to pay for the museum, the university could write letters to alumni asking them to donate money to help build the museum. I’m sure many former students love art and would be glad to donate money to help the university build a museum here.

Sincerely

Diane Miller


Listen to two students discussing the letter.


A: Did you see this letter?

B: Yeah. It’s a nice idea, but it’ll never happen.

A: Why do you say that?

B: Well, first of all, you can get on a bus right here on campus and in half an hour, you are downtown at the county art museum.

A: That’s true.

B: And if you show your student ID card, it only costs like two bucks to get in.

A: Yeah. In fact, on Mondays, students get in for free.

B: Right. And you can see some of the greatest art in the world there. For example, you know Rembrandt, the famous Dutch painter?

A: Yeah.

B: Well, right now they’re showing something like twenty of his paintings.

A: Wow!

B: Yeah. And you know, it’s true. We do have a lot of very generous alumni. But we’re already asking them for help building a new student center and a new library. And those are both very expensive projects.

A: Yeah. That’s right.

B: So I don’t think we can expect them to donate much money for anything else anytime soon, especially for something we don’t really need.


Question: The man expresses his opinion about the letter-writer’s proposal. Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state the man’s opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.


你的笔记






我的笔记


Task 4


Optimal Foraging


Food provides animals with the energy they need to survive. However, animals also lose energy in the process of obtaining, or foraging, for food. Therefore, in order to conserve energy, many animals behave in ways that minimize the energy they expend in the foraging process while at the same time maximizing their nutritional benefits. This energy-efficient approach to obtaining food is known as optimal foraging. The practice of optimal foraging allows animals to expend the least possible amount of energy while at the same time obtaining prey with high food value that will provide them with necessary nutrients.


Now listen to part of lecture from a biology class.


All right. So I’ve got a good example of this.


That’s a bird, a species of crow, that lives near the water and it feeds on a type of shellfish that has a hard outer shell. In order to eat the shellfish, the bird has to crack open its hard shell. So when this bird feeds, what it does is: it dives down out of the air into shallow water, grabs a shellfish, lets it fall onto the rocks below. When the shellfish hits the rocks, its shell cracks and splits open and the bird can eat it.


Now, this bird, this crow, doesn’t just swoop down, grab the first shellfish it sees and then fly up to any height and let it fall. Instead, it does two things.


First, it carefully selects only the biggest shellfish. That means it’s going to get the biggest possible meal for its efforts. Okay?


Second, it carries the shellfish up to a specific height, about five meters, and drops it from there. If the dropped the shellfish from a lower height, it would have to pick it up and drop it too many times in order to break the shell. On the other hand, if the bird carried the shellfish up to a higher altitude, an altitude higher than it’s necessary to crack the shell, it would be wasting energy. So this bird expends just the right amount of energy-no more no less-that it needs to obtain just the kind of food.


Question: Using the example from the lecture, explain the concept of optimal foraging.


你的笔记






我的笔记


Task 5


Listen to a conversation between two students.


A: Hey Cindy. You look happy. Making plans for the summer vacation?

B: I’m just glad the semester is finally over. I just finished my final exam, so I’m taking off for summer vacation tomorrow. Are’nt you?

A: I wish.

B: What do you mean?

A: I have to rewrite the lab report for my biology class. I guess I did it all wrong. So the professor’s making me rewrite it before he’ll submit a final grade.

B: I guess that’s better than if he just gave you a bad grade, right?

A: I guess so. But I was planning on leaving town tomorrow too, and now I’m not sure I can. I spoke with the professor and he gave me two options. I can either turn in the revised report in one week and get my grade, or he said I can wait, you know, taking incomplete in the class and submit the paper next semester in the fall.

B: So are you going to stay around to revise the report?

A: I could. I’d get the grade for the class on time and I wouldn’t have to think about it anymore. But there’s a family reunion this weekend. I was really liking forward to it. If I stay around to revise the report, I’ll miss the reunion.

B: Well, maybe you should take your time and work on the report over the summer. You can submit it when you return in the fall semester and get your grade then.

A: That would be fine, but what if I need materials from the library to revise the report? I don’t know if I’ll be able to find the materials at the library at home.

B: Hmm...


Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.


你的笔记






我的笔记


Task 6


Listen to part of a lecture in a business class.


Okay. So we have been discussing how companies use advertising to help sell their products. Now although advertisements can benefit companies, there are people who are critical of advertising because of certain environmental problems it can cause. So let’s talk about two ways advertising can be seen to negatively affect the environment.


One way is by wasting natural resources, like trees, by advertising to consumers who do not have a need for the product or service. The advertisement is irrelevant or useless for them. For instance, a piece of mail I got advertising a kitchen renovation service. A whole big booklet, lots of paper, about different ways to remodel your kitchen: changing the floors, adding new cupboards or appliances, but this was all a lot of wasted paper, wasted trees because I don’t even own my place. I rent an apartment. So a kitchen renovation service is irrelevant to me. I can’t use it. And I’m sure that booklet was mailed to lots of other people who also rent and who just threw the booklet into trash because they have no need for a kitchen renovation.


Now additionally, advertising can have a negative effect on the natural beauty of the environment. People are often less able to enjoy the beauty of the natural surroundings if there are large advertisements blocking their view of the landscape or distracting them from the natural beauty around them. Let’s face it. No matter how beautiful an area of nature is to begin with, its beauty is damaged by visible advertisements. So...like, for example, this happens with big advertisements on the side of roads, huge billboards. Say there’s a road passing through a beautiful area in the mountains, but there are all these big billboards advertising restaurants and products along the side of the road. The land is naturally very beautiful, but you can’t fully appreciate it. The big billboard advertisements get in the way.


Using the points and examples from the lecture, explain two ways that advertising can negatively affect the environment.


你的笔记





我的笔记


总体来说笔记的目标有两个:一个是结构,一个是要点内的关键词。我们希望内容能够据此展开。


马彬
独立的迅速构思。综合的时间控制,总感觉时间不够。


亲爱的马彬同学,你好,其实你说的“独立的迅速构思。综合的时间控制”这两个问题,在前面答疑文章中都出现过,你可以先看一看。


为了避免给你的答案过短,我想跟你讨论一个务虚的话题——“为什么大家都觉得时间不够用”。显然的,时间不够用,本质上是因为你对题目不够熟悉,毫不避讳的说就是你模考的次数不够多。


事实上如果你模考的频率足够高(其中既包括按照标准计时来模考单个题目,也包括模考完整的口语部分),那么你就能清楚地感知“60秒有多长、45秒有多长,准确的预测在规定时间内,自己到底能回答多少内容”。老油条们几乎能保证随口回答的第1题都在45秒左右。对考试(以及自己)的了解,会大幅减少慌乱的情绪。


总的来说,对时间的控制是“熟练度”的问题,而不是纯粹的语言水平问题。这一点你会随着备考时间的增加而慢慢感受到,我就不再多说了。

以上。


无法采用地道的口语词汇句型会话,口语逻辑层次和内容深度不够
 LONG.YT


亲爱的LONG.YT同学,你好,


开门见山的说,我发现你可能对自己的口语答案有过高的期待。


事实上,在我们的口语答题中并不要求使用俚语或所谓特别地道的表达,“丰满、准确、流利”的语言就已经够了。所以除了基本词汇和必备词组句型,我一般不要求学生额外多背诵很多所谓地道表达,更不要说专门去学习俚语了。另外你所提及的口语逻辑层次和内容深度,我也不做很多的要求,充分即可。你的口语答案的说服力远不如语言本身来得重要。


事实上,逻辑及内容的深度和复杂度并不是由语言能力决定的(二者的能力并不呈现正相关)。大家有必要把SAT、GRE、GMAT这类研究型考试和托福(及雅思)等语言考试区分开来。


参加关注逻辑的考试就把精力放在练习逻辑上,参加关注说服力的考试就把精力放在练习说服力上,而参加关注语言的考试就重点关注语言好了。这恐怕是最简单的策略了。


所以我略担心你的力气用错了地方;别的就没什么了,有新问题的时候再告诉我。


图片授权基于:CC0协议

刘文勇
● 博士后/教师
● 北京乐闻携尔教育咨询有限公司创始人
● 美联英语国际教育学院海外考试研究院院长


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