美国读研热门专业:工业工程专业详细解析

<- 分享“美国研究生留学”微信公众号到您的社交圈,让更多的人知道!

收藏文章 赞一个 已赞 2016-06-19 美国研究生留学



工业工程(IE)的申请一直都是工程类里比较热门的专业,不仅仅是学IE本专业的人,连一些学其它工程类专业的学生也都来凑热闹(比如CS、EE等)。造成这种现象的原因有两个:


一方面,大家错误地认为这个专业偏重于管理而不是技术,所以对自己未来的发展有积极的影响;


另外一方面是这个专业对于学生的背景并没有太多的要求,比如说University of Michigan at Ann Arbor要求学生学过2年的Calculus(4个学期),两年的Science课程(包括Chemistry、 Physics或者Biology),概率论一门,统计一门,线性代数一门,计算机编程(必须会编程语言)。而可以满足这样条件的学生,从Physics、Biology、Chemistry到EE、CS、ME等涵盖了基本上全部的理工科专业.


什么是工业工程(IE)


简单点说,就是让生产流程、产品或系统变得更好的一个专业。其它的工程师是在创造东西,如何使得其它工程师创造东西时的系统和流程优化,就是工业工程师的职责,即创造或改善系统和流程。IE是工程领域里最人性化的专业,工业工程师这一职业现在已经得到了广泛的认可,在20世纪初,有两名IE的奠基者Frank和Lillian Gilbreth,帮助医院提出了一个做手术和培训医生、护士和技术员的方法,结果,做手术的时间大幅缩短,存活率得到了提升,这足以体现工业工程师在实际应用中的价值,在寻求优化流程的过程中,IE的目的就是帮助减少或消除各个领域的浪费,尤其是时间、金钱、材料和能源的浪费。


从大方向来讲,工业工程(IE)可以分为Human Factor(人因学)、Manufacturing(制造业)、Operation Research(运筹学)、Production(生产)这四个大方向。


其中Human Factor和 Operation Research属于新兴方向,专业都比较年轻,Operation Research起源于二战时对物质的分配和统筹,数理含量非常高,不仅仅在工业工程(IE)下有相关方向,在有些数学系下也有相关的研究。


Operation Research还可以延伸出Financial Engineering(我们在关于金融的文章中会有更详细的说明),Project Management(项目管理),Engineering Management(工程管理:有一些学校该专业已经独立出来了,比如Stanford University和George Washington University)等方向。


Human Factor不仅仅在IE下有,在CS下也有相关的方向。事实上,这也说明了工科的特点:各个专业之间非常的交叉。


Manufacturing和Production可以算是传统方向,Manufacturing是有关制造方面的,非常偏工厂端的,与Mechanical Engineering 的交叉比较多;Production可以说是Distributed Control(分散控制)、Supply Chain(供应链)、Analysis and Modeling(分析和模仿),Transportation(运输)、Logistics(物流)、Stock Theory(存货理论)、Queuing Theory(排队理论)以及Game Theory(博弈论)的应用等。


如果细分的话,我们可以把工业工程(IE)分为以下诸多方向:


1..Project Management项目管理


2.Manufacturing, Production and Distribution制造、生产和分配


3.Supply Chain Management供应链管理


4.Productivity, Methods and Process Engineering生产力、方法和加工工程


5.Quality Measurement and Improvement质量检测与改进


6.Program Management程序管理


7.Ergonomics/Human Factors人因学


8.Technology Development and Transfer技术开发和转让


9.Strategic Planning战略规划


10.Management of Change变革管理


11.Financial Engineering金融工程


这11个大的方向下又有很多小的说明和分支:


1.Project Management项目管理


•Develop the detailed work breakdown structure of complex activities and form them into an integrated plan制定复杂活动的详细任务分解结构,形成整合计划


•Provide time based schedules and resource allocations for complex plans or implementations为复杂的计划和工序提供时间进度表以及资源分配策略


•Use project management techniques to perform Industrial Engineering analyses and investigations利用项目管理技术进行工业工程分析和调查


•Conduct facility planning and facility layout development of new and revised production plants and office buildings对新的以及改造过的生产厂房和办公楼进行设备规划与布局


•Form and direct both small and large teams that work towards a defined objective, scope & deliverables组织和指导朝着特定的目标、范围和产品而努力的小型和大型团队


•Perform risk analysis of various project options and outcomes对各种项目选项和成果进行风险分析


2.Manufacturing, Production and Distribution制造,生产和分配


•Participate in design reviews to ensure manufacturability of the product参与设计评审以确保产品的可生产性


•Determine methods and procedures for production distribution activity为产品分配活动确定方法和流程


•Create documentation and work instructions for production and distribution为生产和分配制定工作流程说明


•Manage resources and maintain schedule requirements to meet required production and distribution schedules管理资源和维持流程的要求以实现规定的生产和分配流程


•Process Optimization utilizing Simulation tools (Arena, etc)采用模拟分析工具(例如Arena等)实现优化


•Facilitate and Lead process improvement teams协助和领导流程改进团队


3.Supply Chain Management供应链管理


•Manage Supplier relationships管理供应商关系


•Managing and report on company Supplier Cost/ Performance Indices to management管理供应商成本/性能指标,并向管理人员报告


•Audit Suppliers and ensure supplier processes and procedures are being followed稽核供应商,确保供方遵循了流程


•Travel to suppliers to resolve issues到供应商处商谈以解决问题


•Coordinate first article Inspections 首件检测


•Work with Outsource Manufacturers to ensure product quality, delivery and cost, is maintained与外包商合作以保证产品质量、顺利交付和成本


4.Productivity, Methods and Process Engineering生产力,方法和加工工程


•Define proper work methods for tasks确定合适的任务完成方法


•Define appropriate processes for work flow activities确定合理的工作流程


•Define key production measures确定关键的生产措施


•Define goals and data capture/analysis for key measures确定核心措施的目标和数据获取/分析


•Perform root cause analysis to improve poor performing processes通过影响因素分析来改善加工过程


•Develop appropriate incentive plans for work tasks为工作任务制定适宜的激励计划


•Determine capacity requirements and subsequent investment options确定容量需求以及相应的投资选择


5.Quality Measurement and Improvement质量检测与改进


•Resolve quality-related issues in all aspects of the business解决所有与质量相关的问题


•Work with design and production teams and outsource manufacturers to ensure product quality is maintained during the design and production phases在设计和生产阶段,与设计和生产团队、外包制造商合作以确保产品质量


•Audit defined processes and procedures to ensure that they are being followed审核规定的程序和流程以确保它们是按照流程进行


•Coordinate and Facilitate 3rd Party Quality Audits协调和促进第三方质量审核


•Provide refresher training on procedures for company personnel on Quality and process-related issues, including the use of analytical tools and techniques such as SPC, Six Sigma, etc.在质量和流程相关问题上,对公司员工提供进一步培训,包括利用分析工具和技术,例如SPC, Six Sigma等


•Manage and resolve issues with incoming material through the Receiving process通过接收处理,解决与来料相关的问题


6.Program Management项目管理


•Develop proposals for new programs对新项目制定方案


•Manage program/project teams to ensure program stays on schedule, on budget, and meets performance expectations管理项目团队,以确保项目按照原定计划、预算进行,并符合性能预期。


•Coordinate a matrix of team member across departments within an organization to ensure completion of project tasks在一个机构里,协调不同部门的不同团队成员以确保项目任务的完成


7.Ergonomics/Human Factors人因学


•Ensure Human Factors Engineering is utilized in New Product Design确保人因学工程在新产品设计上的使用


•Ensure Human Factors Engineering disciplines are utilized in production setup and configuration确保人因学工程在产品安装和配置方面的使用


•Ensure company Ergonomics policies are defined to minimize causes of employee injury and discomfort确保公司人因学政策的确定,以最小化雇员的受伤和不适情形


8.Technology Development and Transfer技术开发和转让


•Identify basic business problems requiring analysis鉴定基本的需要分析的业务问题


•Determine if technology or process based solution best确定以技术或流程为基础的解决方案是否是最好的


•Characterize problem, identify prospective providers/bidders and submit requests for proposals归类问题,确定潜在的供应商/投标商,并且提交方案申请


•Evaluate bid responses, select successful bidder(s) and establish technical feasibility评估投标反馈,选择合适的投标商,确定技术可行性


•Conduct small scale/medium scale tests to determine operational feasibility, implementation methods and training requirements进行小规模/中等规模的测试来确定操作的可行性、实施方法和培训要求


•Conduct enterprise wide implementation企业范围内实施


•Transition support activities/responsibilities to long term business and technology owners为长期业务和技术所有者提供转让支持


9.Strategic Planning战略规划


•Develop long range planning models, typically 5-10 years in scope制定长期规划,一般是5-10年的规划


•Model all areas affected by operation为操作会影响到的各个方面做模型


•Identify anticipated investment in plant, capacity, network, etc判断在工厂、容量、网络等方面的预期投资


•Tie to preliminary production cost, operational cost, sales forecasts与初步的生产成本、经营成本、销售预测捆绑


•Develop preliminary financial impacts, including profitability and ROI明确初步的财务影响,包括盈利能力和投资回报率


10.Management of Change变革管理


•Ensure that change programs are coordinated, support one another and move along the critical path确保变革项目的执行,互相支持并且在关键步骤共同前进


•Create and maintain the imperative for the change, establish priorities and provide visible sponsorship for the change确保变革的执行,确定优先事项,并为变革提供可见的赞助


•Provide the skills, knowledge, processes, organization structure and tools required to deliver the change提供变革所需的技能、知识、流程、组织结构和工具


•Ensure that the individuals involved buy into the change, actively support it and adopt their behavior accordingly确保每个相关的人融入变革、积极支持并采取相应的行动


11.Financial Engineering金融工程


•Determine production costs using specific cost based methodology采用具体的基于成本的方法来确定生产成本


•Develop budgets, forecasts for operating cost centers为运营成本中心制定预算和预测


•Measure actual performance vs budget goals and investigate variance测试实际表现vs预算目标和调查差异


•Develop capital and expense budgets for capacity expansion为扩大生产能力制定资本开支和费用预算


•Perform cost analysis/justification for capital and expense expenditures对资本开支和费用预算进行成本分析和调整


Perform make vs buy vs lease analyses 执行制造,购买与租借分析


本文节选自《去美国读研究生》

如有转载,请注明作者和出处

推荐阅读

关键字均在公众号对话框中回复,

不是在留言区,也不用点阅读原文哦


回复 GPA 看GPA相关内容


回复 条件 看申请美国研究生需要什么硬条件


回复 PS 看个人陈述相关内容


回复 CS 看计算机科学专业详细解读


回复 金融 看金融专业详细解读


回复 会计 看会计专业详细解读


回复 法学 看法学专业详细解读


回复 传媒 看传媒专业详细解读


回复 ME 看机械工程专业详细解读


回复 市场营销 看市场营销专业解读

点击阅读原文,为自己做一个免费留学评估吧~!

点击展开全文