文勇专栏 ▏托福听力听到的全没考,考的全没听到?

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今天依旧是文勇专栏,是解答托福听力问题的第四篇,前面三篇分别是:


文勇专栏 ▏托福听力听了后面忘前面,听不出逻辑怎么办!

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力到底要不要记笔记?

文勇专栏 ▏托福听力问答


大家可以到刘文勇老师的公众号向他提问哦~

张新:不会记笔记。总是听懂什么就记什么,记完答题时也不会看,基本没用。看了也不知道该选哪个。对答题没有帮助。


亲爱的张新同学,你好。


其实,听力之中有个所谓的悖论很有意思,想说给你听。第一个是关于“听力与笔记”的:“如果听力已经听懂了,记笔记还能给谁看呢?不是已经听懂了么?而如果听力听不懂,那实际上又能记下来些什么呢?”这个悖论类似听写中的悖论,我们经常提醒一些只做听写训练的同学,不应该花费太多的时间在听写上,因为听写的过程便是如此:“听懂了还有什么可听写的呢?若是听不懂,又能写下来什么呢?”这个悖论实际上未必正确,却很有意思,它引导我们思考“记笔记究竟是为了什么”。在看我下面的回答之前,我建议你再把前三块的回答看一下问题一】问题二】【问题三,其中都有提及关于记笔记的内容。回顾一下不是坏事情。


毫无疑问的,“听懂什么就记什么”并不是正确的选择,用听懂的部分尝试暗示描绘没听懂的部分才是关键。另外,托福的听力题目,其正确答案往往不是原文,而是原文的“同义改写”,我们常用Paraphrase来表述它。常有老师提及这样的插科打诨式的技巧——“叫做笔记中有什么就不选什么”。我们对此当然只能莞尔一笑,这样不管具体题目具体语境的过度总结对解题并没有有效的指导作用,但这其中却暗示了出题机构对于Paraphrase热衷。关于Paraphrase能力培养,首先应该在手边放置有一本好的同义词字典(或者电脑里安装)---有趣的是中国学生遇到生词都不愿意查同义词字典甚至没有同义词字典。而其复述能力在几乎每一个科目之中(听说读写)都被大量地反复多遍地考查。


额外的,关于Paraphrase应试能力训练,可以考虑将听力的正确答案跟原文文本对应在一起,反复阅读朗读诵读…,我在这摘取了几个例子你看一眼是否能对这种考查形式有所了解。


例题1

TPO 28  L1 第三题


文中:“We get knowledge from our sense”

选项:“Knowledge acquired through the senses”


例题2

TPO 29  L4 第四题


文中:“That’s about how high an object would have to be orbiting straight up from the equator to constantly remain directly above the exact same spot on the rotating planet Earth.”

选项:“A satellite orbiting at this height can remain directly above one location on Earth.”


例题3

TPO 30  L1 第四题


文中:“But there was a problem, other researchers protested that the response is simply a learned or conditioned response.”

选项:“The study did not distinguish between learned and higher-level responses.”


W z Z :我觉得最难的是听到的全没考,考的全没听到。最痛苦的是,他不断重复的,不断的同义替换,我还是没有意识到他要出题!再就是听的时候对文章结构的把握,也许是我听少了的原因,找不准划断提示词。再说做的问题吧。每次时间都不够!最后一个lecture必须在一分钟完成!看题,看笔记,在看题,再看笔记,再分析每个选项,然后将近一分钟就过去了

Dear,W z Z 同学你好(你的名字是表示犯困的意思么?)


关于考点的话题,我在第二次回答中也提到过,在你看这个问题的回答之前,请你看一下第二次回答的答案回答二,我类似就不再说一遍了。


另外,你所说的“提示词、敏感词”的问题,的确需要经过大量反复地对某一个词进行专门训练才行。


我先举一个浅显的例子,再来看具体的题目。在阅读的过程中(没错,我也教阅读),当我们读到“but”、“however”的时候就会心头一紧,会觉得这些词额外的扎眼睛,这是因为在我们生命中出现过的几乎所有的英语老师(当然,我希望我是你们最后的一个英语老师,之后就再也不需要了)都反复多遍地在我们的耳边嘶吼:“看到“but”后面就是中心、就是主题、就是出题点,要关注,要关注。”现在我们需要对听力中的提示词做一样的动作,自己对着自己强调特定的重要性。我们来看几个简单的例子,尝试描述一下对提示词敏感度的训练应该怎么做。


例题1


TPO 21 Lecture 1


Narrator Listen to part of a lecture in a history of science class. Aristarchus-Heliocentric Theory


Professor: Ok, we have been talking about how throughout history, it was often difficult for people to give up ideas, which have long been taken for granted as scientific truth, even if those ideas were false. In Astronomy, for example, the distinction between the solar system and the universe wasn’t clear until modern times. The ancient Greeks believed that what we called the solar system was in fact the entire universe, and that the universe was geocentric. Geocentric means Earth-centered, so the geocentric view holds that the Sun, the planets, and the stars, all revolve around the Earth, which is stationary. Of course, we now know that the planets, including Earth, revolve around the Sun, and that the solar system is only a tiny part of the universe.


So, why did the ancient Greeks believe that the Earth was the center of the universe? Well, it made sense to them. Observations of the sky make it appear as if the Sun, the moon, and the stars all revolve around the Earth everyday, while the Earth itself stayed in one place. And this view is also supported by their philosophical and religious beliefs about the origin and structure of the universe. It was presented in the works of well-known Greek philosophers as early as the fourth century B.C.E., and the geocentric theory continue to prevail in Western thought for almost 2,000 years, until the 17th century.


Now, what’s especially interesting is that when astronomical observations were made that seemed to be inconsistent with the geocentric view, the ancient Greeks did not really consider alternative theories. It was so intuitive, so sensible that the Earth was the center of the universe that astronomers found ways to explain those seemingly inconsistent phenomena within the geocentric view. 


For example, Greek astronomers made excellent, very accurate observations of the movements of the planets, but the observations revealed a bit of a problem. The geocentric theory said, that the planets would move around the Earth in one direction. However, astronomers noticed that at times, several planets seem to stop moving in one direction and start moving backward in their orbits around the Earth, and they came up with a theory that these planets themselves moved in smaller circles called epicycles as they travelled around the Earth. Here’s a picture of what they imagined. You see how this epicycle theory could account for the seemingly backward motion of the planet. Of course, today we know that this appearance of backward motion is caused by the fact that Earth, as well as other planets, all move in their own orbits around the Sun, and the relative movements of the planets with respect to each other can get quite complex. 


However, there were a few astronomers in Greece and other places who didn’t agree with the geocentric view, for example, a Greek astronomer who lived in the third century B.C.E. He proposed the theory that our planetary system might be heliocentric, his name was Aristarchus. Heliocentric means Sun-centered, that the Earth revolves around the Sun. Aristarchus recognized from his calculations that the Sun was much larger than the Earth and other planets. It was probably this discovery that led him to conclude that the universe is heliocentric. I mean, isn’t it more sensible to think that a smaller heavenly body would orbit a larger one, rather than the opposite? 


However, his proposition was rejected largely based on other scientific beliefs held at the time, which all made sense in a way even if they were incorrect. Let me mention two objections Greeks made to Aristarchus’s theory. First, they believe that everything that moves creates its own wind, so to speak, everyone has this experience when you are running, right? So, they thought that if the Earth itself was moving, there would have to be a constant wind blowing, sweeping them off their feet, and of course there wasn’t. And second, the idea of an Earth that moved didn’t fit in with the ancient Greeks’ understanding of gravity. They thought that gravity was basically a natural tendency of all things to move towards the center of the universe, which was the Earth, or the center of the Earth, so that explains why apples and other falling objects were falling straight down. If the Sun was at the center of the universe, things would fall toward the Sun and away from the Earth, which of course they didn’t. So these were some of the reasons they rejected the heliocentric theory. 


Why does the professor discuss the epicycle theory? 


·To explain why early astronomers started measuring the velocity of the planets 

·To explain why the astronomer Aristarchus rejected the geocentric model 

·To show how early astronomers explained the apparent backward motion of some planets 

·To show that early astronomers believed that all planets moved in their own orbits around the Sun 


例题2 

TPO23 Lecture l 


Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class. 


Professor: I was talking to one of my colleagues in the physics department the other day, and we ended up discussing how one discovery can change everything. My colleague mentioned how the theory of relativity completely changed the field of physics. At any rates, that conversation got me thinking about archaeological finds that really changed our understanding of ancient civilizations. So I want to talk about the discovery of the Antikythera Mechanism. 


The Antikythera Mechanism was found a hundred years ago, under water in an ancient Greek shipwreck in the Mediterranean Sea. It was in extremely poor condition and in many corroded pieces. But once we figured out what it was and reconstructed it. Well, I simply don't have the words to convey how extraordinary this find was. 


The Antikythera Mechanism is a relatively small device, roughly the size of a shoebox, made of gears fitted inside a wooden case. In its original state, there were rotating dials and other indicators on the top, with letters and drawings showing the Sun, the phases of the moon and different constellations. Inside the box, bronze gears would have rotated the displays. The displays, uh, the indicators of the Antikythera Mechanism, would then moved to show the motion of the Sun and moon relative to the planets and stars. The device could be used to tell the different phases of the moon and much more. 


Well, scientists have recently analyzed the inscriptions on the mechanism and re-examine the other cargo in the ship wreck, and the evidence makes an absolute case that this device dates back to ancient Greece somewhere between 150 and 100 B.C.E. What makes that so fascinating is that before we found the Antikythera Mechanism, the earliest device we had that could track the Sun and moon like this was invented over 1,000 years later. So when this was first found, people literally would not believe it. Some of my colleagues insisted it had to have been made well after 100 B.C.E. But this physical evidence was conclusive. It was that old. 


Of course part of what made this find so unusual is that the Antikythera Mechanism is constructed of bronze. Now, it is not that bronze was all that rare in Greece then, it is just that bronze was valuable and could easily be recycled. It would have been relatively easy for a person with knowledge of metals to melt down bronze objects and forge them into ? well, say, coins. Bronze was used to made money back then. Or mold the bronze into anything else of value for that matter. 


We are very fortunate that the device ended up under water, because otherwise it probably would have ended up recycled into ? who knows what. Now, it was a challenge to figure out the Antikythera Mechanism. It spent over 2,000 years at the bottom of the sea before it was discovered. And even after it was discovered, it was still a number of years before we really understood what it was. You see, the mechanism had corroded underwater, and many of the gears were stuck together in a mass. Cleaning it was only partly successful. We could only get a good look at the structure of the gears after gamma-rays were used to see inside, very similar to the way X-rays are used to see your bones. 


Now, once we got a good look inside, we saw a really complex device. The many gears not only moved in a way that could indicate the phases of the moon. The Antikythera Mechanism also tracked both the lunar year and the solar year. Additionally, the gears also moved to match the motions of the planet and predicted eclipses. But one thing that is particularly notable is that the mechanism was so precise that it even took into account a particular irregularity in the moon's orbit, which requires some very complex math to replicate in mechanical device. 


You could say that the Antikythera Mechanism was a very precise calendar, which stands to reasons calendars were very important to ancient peoples. Religious festivals had to be held at the right time of year, crops needed to be planted at the right time as well. And let's not forget that eclipses in planetary motions had important symbolic meanings. 


What does the professor imply about the ancient Greeks when she says this? 


·They were the first to observe the irregularly in the Moon’s orbit. 

·They might not have been the inventors of the Antikythera Mechanism 

·They were more scientifically advanced than is commonly thought. 

·They appeared to have made some errors in their calculations. 


例题3 

TPO 24 Lecture4 


Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class. 


Professor: Many people have been fascinated about Venus for centuries because of its thick cloud cover, this so-called planet of mystery and all of that. Well, what's under those clouds? What's the surface of the planet like? Some questions about the surface are still unresolved, but we have learned a lot about it in the past several years. 


First of all, let me talk about how we have been able to get past those clouds. First, there were Soviet modules2 that landed directly on the surface and sent back some images of what was around them. Second, we did some radar imaging from satellites from above. Radar can get through the clouds. So what have we learned? Yes, Karen? 


Student: Well, I remember reading that there's not really a lot going on, that the surface of Venus is just flat and smooth in a lot of places. 


Professor: Yeah, smooth in a lot of places. But that's not, um... that's not the whole picture. In other areas, you've got canyons, ripped valleys, meteo craters, uh, lava domes, these lava formations that look like giant pancakes. And also volcanoes. 


Well, one of the most interesting features on the surface are in fact the shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes formed when magma comes out of the ground in the same spot over and over again. Remember, magma is hot molten rock that's underground, and it is called lava when it reaches the surface. Uh, so the lava builds up, and hardens, and a volcano forms.


Now, the lava on Venus is thin. It spreads out easily. So shield volcanoes have very gentle sloping sides. They are called shield volcanoes, because viewed from above, they kind of resemble shields, you know, like a warrior's shield. 


But what's particularly interesting about these volcanoes is that most of the volcanoes here on Earth are not shield volcanoes. Instead, they are other volcano types, like strata volcanoes, for example, which are a result of tectonic plate movement. Remember tectonic plates? 


Underneath the Earth's crust, there are a number of shifting slabs or plates that are slowly moving. And in the zones on the edges of the plates where different plates meet and interact, that's where we get most of Earth's volcanoes.


On Venus, however, volcanoes are not clustered in discrete zones like they are on Earth. Instead, they are more or less randomly scattered over Venus's surface. Well, that's significant. Venus has mostly shield volcanoes, and they are randomly scattered, that indicates that Venus does not have moving tectonic plates, and that's a big difference compared to Earth. Here on Earth, moving tectonic plates are a major geological element, just crucial for the whole surface dynamic, right? 


So why doesn't Venus have them? Well, there are a few theories. One of them is that this has to do with the fact that Venus has no surface water that's needed to kind of lubricate the movement of the plates, you know, like oceans on Earth. Yeah, I forgot to spell that out. Uh, Venus has no surface water. 


Student: Wait a second. Did you say we have shield volcanoes on Earth? Can you give an example?


Professor: Sure. The volcanoes in the Hawaii islands, in the Pacific Ocean are shield volcanoes. They are formed over a hot spot of magma. So while on Earth we have several types of volcanoes, on Venus there's mostly the one type. Uh, Eric? 


Student: Are the volcanoes on Venus still active? 


Professor: Well, that's an interesting question. There is still some discussion on that point. But here's what we do now. First, the level of sulfur dioxide gas above Venus's clouds shows large and very frequent fluctuations. It is quite possible that these fluctuations, the huge increase and decrease of sulfur dioxide, happening again and again. It's quite possible that this is due to volcanic eruptions, because volcanic eruptions often emit gases. If that's the case, volcanism could very well be the root cause of Venus's thick cloud cover. And also we have observed bursts of radio energy from the planet's surface. These bursts are similar to what we see when volcanoes erupt on Earth. So this too suggests ongoing volcanic activity. But although this is intriguing evidence, no one's actually observed a Venus volcano erupting yet, so we can't be positive. 


What differences between volcanoes on Venus and those on Earth does the professor mention? Click on 2 answers 


·Volcanoes on Venus are mostly shield volcanoes 

·Volcanoes on Venus emit thicker lava 

·Many volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in specific zones. 

·Many volcanoes on Earth show no volcanic activity 


(我没有办法在文章中加入音频,但是大家显然知道,我希望大家先是以句子为单位进行“however”、“but”的敏感性训练,再逐步扩大范围到段落及文章,每次出现你所训练的特定的标志词时,心中都额外一紧,像是完成了任务一样。让我再额外加重一下这句话“敏感词的训练,不建立在大量的泛听训练,而建立在特定的精听段落之中” 


我们需要对三五个段落(如果你自己不想找,是不是发现我已经给你找好了?)特别的熟悉,每次都怀着预期等着特定的标志词从耳边蹦出来,蹦出来的时候我们几乎要跟着念一遍,这才是我们增加对特定的词敏感性的正确方式。也只有这样,你在考试时听到新的文章之中蹦出同一个发音时,才会将你所熟悉段落的感受瞬间带入到新的文章中,这不就是我们所期待的么。


Sam W:我觉得是耳朵对英文敏感的度的问题,在中国的环境下没有天天听英文语言的条件,老师们会觉得同学明明听到了某些关键的词语却没有反应或理解,是因为学生耳朵没有适应英文语言,导致麻木,从而不会让托福语音的内容刺激到耳朵形成思维。解决的方法只有看英文原汁原味的英文电影/视频/电视剧,不管是英国/美国/澳大利亚口音,如果有条件坚持看youtube一年,托福听力一道题不用做都可以拿25+


Dear Sam W:


我并不同意你的观点,我既不同意使用英文电影/视频/电视剧来学习英文——特别是复习标准化的考试,也不赞同受过英文刺激一年以上的同学就可以不经训练地听力拿到25分以上。我想你可能把一个相对复杂的事情过分简单化了。视频的确可以增加观众对于英语的熟悉程度,但泛听对于知识点本身匮乏的同学来说并没有起到应有的知识积累的作用,因为“原本不了解的知识很难因为你多听几遍就变得了解”起来。而且在托福的备考中,听力部分以校园生活和大学课堂为主,有的放矢地复习托福真题才能使标靶清楚。不要把英语能力和考试分数对立起来——我们只是提倡优先学习更有可能考察的知识而已。


托福考试作为标准化考试,其最可以被利用的特点就是其考点固定,这几乎其实也是唯一可以被研究和归纳的特质。那么以托福的真实考题专门复习就显得更为合适了。另外,也正因为是标准化考试,托福对于知识点的切入方式也十分稳定。熟悉特定切入方式和不熟悉之间,差异巨大。坊间常有笑话,说即便是美国人(甚至是美国的大学生)也并不能保证托福听力全对,以此来表达托福听力之难。显然,其难点显然不在于听力能力本身,而是不了解托福考题的切入方式。所以专门的练习,甚至专门寻找老师来帮助学习的过程,是尽可能在短的时间里取得高分的好办法。


Dear Sam W,我们不能简单的抱怨自己没有全英文的语言环境,想想以往绝大部分取得高分的中国学生其实也没有,他们能做到,我们,如果方式得当的话,也应该能做到。


WYF的小阅读:每次考听力,听完第一个对话就睡了

愿你在梦中也在考试,哈哈,这个算是诅咒么?其实对这个问题我在之前已经回答过,如下是链接问题一,你看看有没有帮助。


刘文勇
● 博士后/教师
● 北京乐闻携尔教育咨询有限公司创始人
● 美联英语国际教育学院海外考试研究院院长

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