L1-A&EB-5,两种移民区别及优势

2016年12月27日 美国移民信息平台


EB-5投资移民美国 和 L1跨国企业家移民美国,虽然这两种签证类型毫无关联,但是对于国人来讲,本质都是花钱买绿卡,所以有很大相关性。那么,现在EB-5排期来了,没有排期但是规则模糊不清的L1签证,是否会再度重回国人视线?对于想移民美国的外国人来说,有两种方式非常受欢迎。一种是L1-A,一种是EB-5。这篇文章就来谈一谈两者之间的关键区别及各自优势。


EB-5移民签证

EB-5投资移民可为外国投资者提供获得绿卡的机会。对投资者最基本的要求就是投资100万美金(或投资TEA地区50万美金),创造一个新的企业并在2年内创造10个全职就业岗位,投资者通过USCIS(移民局)批准的区域中心进行投资。为了获得EB-5签证,申请人必须递交I-526申请表格,这个表格可为投资者、其配偶、未满21岁子女获得有条件绿卡。如果投资者证明了在I-526获批后的2年内创造了10个就业岗位,那么投资者可以递交I-829表格,申请解除条件获得永久绿卡。

L-1移民签证

L-1类签证可让美国雇主从在美国境外的公司,短期调任具有执行或管理能力的职员到美国公司来工作(L1-A), 或调任有特殊技能的职员(L1-B,不在本文讨论之列)。这类签证也能让一个在美国没有分公司的企业,输送经营管理人员,或者有特殊技能的员工来美国,目的是在美国建立一个分支公司。L-1A申请人的雇主填写I-129表格。如果公司刚成立,L1申请人首次可申请到1年的签证; 如果公司已在运营,L1申请人首次可申请到3年的签证。每次续签一般可获2年延期,最多7年。

获得绿卡的可行性

这两种类型签证最大的区别在于获得美国绿卡这方面,也就是,永久居留。如上所述,EB-5在I-526通过之后,申请人可立即获“有条件”永久居留。再过2年满足了创造就业就业的条件后,就可以获得永久绿卡。所以,这是一种“移民”签证。

相比之下,L-1类签证不是一种移民签证,假设在获得了最长续签时间的情况下,它也只是一种仅有5年或7年的临时居留签证。如果不能按照L-1法规,开展业务,那么签证的续签将被拒绝。

不过,通过L-1签证是可以”非直接地“获得永久绿卡的。职员可以通过填写I-485表格来提交永久绿卡的申请。事实上,L-1签证持有者允许具有移民倾向,USCIS和领事馆允许这种倾向出现。所以,L-1签证有时也被称作“双重倾向签证”。

申请资格

这两种类型签证的第二大区别在于谁有资格申请。EB-5申请要求对于投资来说是最低的,任何能将50万美金投资到有效商业企业的外国人都可以申请。

相比之下,对于想申请L-1的职员及其雇主就有诸多要求了。对于雇主来说,在美国新开设的分支公司必须和海外公司有着公司关系。这意味着开在美国的分支公司,必须是海外公司的母公司、分公司、子公司或分支机构,海外公司和美国公司,必须持续共享共同的所有权和控制权。此外,当L-1受益人在美国期间,海内外公司必须有持续经营。至于职员,必须是高管、经理或有能提供特殊知识服务的能力。另外,职员在进入美国公司的前3年中,必须至少拥有1年在该海外公司工作的经历。

哪种签证更适合你

决定这两种签证很大程度上取决于申请人是否在为一家外国公司工作。一个想去美国而没有在外国公司工作的人是不适合申请L-1A的,因为L-1需要申请人必须是高管、经理或有特殊技能,并在提交申请前的3年中至少有1年为此海外公司工作。如果受益人想申请永久绿卡的话,可以提交I-485申请。

拥有50万美金但没在海外公司工作的申请人,应该考虑EB-5投资移民。因为EB-5为其提供了获得绿卡的直接捷径。每个申请人应该通过可靠的移民律师来选择最适合自己的移民途径。


下面的表格,清晰明了的总结了这两种签证的重要区别:



EB-5L-1A
获得绿卡的可行性直接、有保障:一旦满足条件,可获得2年的有条件绿卡,在成功获批I-829后可获得永久绿卡。非移民签证:L-1签证是一种临时的非移民签证。但是成功的申请人可以提交I-129来申请永居(绿卡)。
申请资格任何满足条件的外国投资人均可。跨公司内转移:申请人必须在提交申请的前3年中至少拥有1年在海外相关公司工作的经历,并且拥有经管能力。
投资要求投资50万美金到TEA地区,或投资100万美金到任意地区。
就特岗位创造10无明确要求
时长2年的有条件绿卡,随后通过I-829即可获得永久绿卡。L1-A首次申请可获得1-3年签证,每次续签可获2年延期,期限最长不超过7年。
家庭成员配偶及21岁以下未婚子女都可和主申请人获得同样的居住权。配偶及21岁以下未婚子女会获得L-2非独立签证。
商业计划必须遵守以下Matter of Ho法案,并包括如下信息:尽管没有明确的要求,但是商业计划书必须清楚的呈现在美国发展业务的理由。还要证明美国的实体公司和海外公司的关系、受益人的经管职位角色、并列明就业创造细节,包括清晰的架构信息和组织结构图等。
一份商业的描述
一份商业结构书
一份营销报告书及目标市场分析
人员经验
竞争分析
所要求的执照和许可
人员雇佣时间表
工作描述
预算及财务预测……
最重要的是,商业计划必须可靠。

由于L1政策及标准相对模糊,对于急于走捷径拿绿卡的国人而言,更容易被误导,若要选择走此路,还请小心谨慎从事。


原文网站:www.ecouncilinc.com

Comparing the EB-5 and L-1 Visas

Foreign nationals looking to immigrate to the U.S. may consider two particularly popular visa options: the L-1A and EB-5. This article will delineate the key differences and advantages that each visa has to offer.

General Background:

The EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program offers foreign investors the opportunity to become permanent residents in the U.S.. The basic requirements to obtain an EB-5 Visa are that an investor must invest $1,000,000 (or $500,000 in a Targeted Employment Area) in a new commercial enterprise and create at least 10 full-time jobs in two years. The investor can do this through a USCIS-approved Regional Center. To obtain an EB-5 visa, the petitioner must file an I-526 form, which provides conditional permanent residence to the investor, his/her spouse, and children under 21. If the investor can demonstrate the creation of 10 jobs within 2 years of an approved I-526 application, the investor can then file a Form I-829 condition removal petition.

The L-1 visa classification enables a U.S. employer to temporarily transfer a worker in an executive or managerial capacity (L1-A visa) or a worker with specialized knowledge (L1-B visa – which will not be the focus of this article) from an affiliated[1] foreign office to one of its offices in the U.S.  This classification also enables a foreign company which does not yet have an affiliated U.S. office to send an executive, manager, or employee with specialized knowledge to the U.S. with the purpose of establishing one.[2] The L-1A visa petition, Form I-129, is filed by the employer. The initial term of residence for an L-1A applicant is one (if a start-up/new office) or 3 years (if an existing business), which can be renewed in 2-year increments for up to 7 years.[3]

Green Card Obtainability:

The most important difference between the two categories concerns the obtainability of a Green Card, and, hence, permanent residence in the U.S.. As discussed above, the EB-5 visa offers (conditional) permanent residency immediately upon approval of an I-526 application, and unconditional permanent residence after two years if the aforementioned job-creation requirements have been met. As a result, it is considered an “immigrant visa.”

By contrast, the L-1A-category is not an immigrant visa, and allows for a temporary residence of up to 5 or 7 years, assuming the maximum amount of visa renewals have been granted. If the L-1 employee fails to develop the business according to L-1 regulations, the visa renewal will be denied.

However, an L-1 visa can indirectly lead to permanent residence. The petitioning employee may request a Green Card by filing an I-485 petition. In fact, the L-1 visa holder is allowed to have immigrant intent, and this will not endanger the approval of the visa by USCIS or the consulate.[4] For this reason, the L-1 visa is sometimes referred to as a “dual-intent visa.”[5]

Eligibility Requirements:

The second major distinction between the two visas concerns who can apply. The EB-5 eligibility requirements are minimal concerning the investor him or herself. Any foreigner can apply, assuming they have made an investment of at least $500,000 in a valid commercial enterprise.

By contrast, there are several eligibility requirements concerning both the employer and the employee seeking an L-1 visa. Regarding the employer, the new U.S. office must have a corporate relationship with a foreign entity abroad. This means that the new U.S. office must be a parent, affiliate, subsidiary or branch of the foreign entity, and that both the U.S. office and the foreign entity must continue to share common ownership and control. In addition, the U.S. and foreign offices must be doing business for the duration of the beneficiary’s stay in the United States as an L-1.  Regarding the employee, he or she must be an executive, manager, or provide services in a specialized knowledge capacity. In addition, the employee must have been working for the foreign entity, for one continuous year within the three years immediately preceding his or her admission to the United States.[6]

Which Visa is Right for You?

Deciding between visas depends largely on whether the petitioner is working for a foreign company. A person wishing to come to the U.S. who does not work for a foreign entity will not be able to apply for the L-1A visa, since it requires the beneficiary to be an executive, manager, or a person with specialized knowledge who has worked for the foreign entity for at least one year in the last three years prior to petitioning.  If the beneficiary seeks permanent residence in the U.S., he or she can submit an I-485 petition.

Petitioners who do not work for a foreign company and have $500,000 to invest should consider the EB-5 visa option because it provides a direct route to a Green Card. Each petitioner must carefully select the right visa category with the help of a trusted immigration attorney. 


The chart, below, conveniently summarizes these important distinctions:



EB-5L-1A
Green Card obtainabilityDirect and guaranteed:assuming requirements are met, the EB-5 visa establishes conditional residency for 2 years, after which petitioner can receive permanent residency pending a successful I-829 petitionNon-immigrant Visa: the L-1 visa is a temporary , non-immigrant visa, but successful petitioners can submit an I-129 petition to request permanent residence
Who can applyAny foreign investor meeting aforementioned investment requirementsAn Intracompany transferee· L1-A: Petitioner must have been employed in an executive or managerial capacity at an affiliated overseas office continuously for at least 1 of the past 3 years.
Investment requirement$500,000 in Targeted Employment Areas, or $1,000,000 elsewhereNone
Job creation requirement10No specific requirement
DurationConditional residency for 2 years; permanent residency thereafter following successful I-829 petition· L1-A: Initial one- or 3-year term, which can be renewed in 2-year increments for up to 7 years
Family MembersSpouse and unmarried children under 21 will be granted same residency status as petitioner.Spouse and unmarried children under 21 will be issued L-2 dependent visas.
Business PlanMust comply with Matter of Ho and include: (i) a description of the business, (ii) the business structure, (iii) a marketing plan with target market analysis, (iv) personnel experience, (v) a competitive analysis, (vi) required licenses and permits, (vii) staffing timetable for hiring, (viii) job descriptions, and (ix) a budget and financial projections…Most importantly, the Business Plan must be credible.Although there are no specific requirements, the business plan must clearly set out the reasons for the development of the business in the U.S. and must clearly demonstrate the relationship between the foreign and U.S. entities, the beneficiary’s executive or managerial role, and outline job creation details including clear structural information and organizational/ hierarchical charts



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