【美国医疗卫生】需要高度警惕耐抗生素细菌

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它们看起来并不像怪物或者僵尸那么可怕。实际上,不用显微镜的话你根本看不见它们。但是它们是一些已经变得比抗生素更强大的细菌,致命程度是吸血鬼永远达不到的。

这些微生物有时也被称为“噩梦细菌”。由于变得对曾经可以消灭它们的药物更有耐药性,它们的致命性越来越高。抗生素曾有效地战胜了结核病、百日咳、破伤风和疟疾。而对抗生素有耐药性的细菌可能使这些疾病的死亡率再次激增。误用和滥用抗生素是造成问题的部分原因。专家认为,另一个原因是,近年来在研发更新更好的抗生素药物方面投入不足。


痢疾杆菌会造成儿童腹泻性疾病。研究表明耐药菌株的发生率正在上升。(CDC)

世界卫生组织(WHO)2014年在对此问题的评估中预测有可能出现一个“后抗生素时代”。

该组织的报告说:“这一严重威胁已经不再是对未来的预言,而是此时此刻正在世界每一地区发生,并且有可能影响到任何国家、任何年龄的任何人。”超级细菌正四处横行肆虐,造成疾病和加重感染,但是有关其发生频率的全球数据尚不完整。

美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)对美国方面的数据有较好的掌握。据它计算,2013年有200万美国人受到耐抗生素细菌的感染,并且由这些感染直接导致的死亡每年至少有23000起。

欧巴马政府在三月份宣布了一项应对该健康威胁的计划。它呼吁美国各政府机构、国际合作伙伴、个人和组织在公共卫生、兽医学及其他领域之间开展跨学科合作。

耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)可导致危及生命的血液感染、肺炎和外科手术部位感染。(NIAID)

这些合作伙伴将努力达成五个目标:

  • 减慢耐药细菌的出现和传播速度。

  • 加强监控以抗击耐药性。

  • 推进对超级细菌的诊断测试开发和使用。

  • 加快新抗生素与疫苗的研究和开发。

  • 加强在抗生素耐药性的预防、监控和控制方面的国际合作以及抗生素的研究和开发。

疾病预防与控制中心主任汤姆·弗里登博士(Tom Frieden)经常警告说,任何一个地方暴发疫情都是对所有地方的威胁。“我们仍有时间控制住抗生素耐药性问题……这将是在下个十年对全球健康许多方面的一个关键挑战。”

Be afraid. Be very afraid of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


They aren’t as scary-looking as monsters or zombies. In fact, you can’t even see one without a microscope. But some bacteria have grown stronger than antibiotics, and they are killing more people than vampires ever will.

These creatures, sometimes called “nightmare bacteria,” are becoming deadlier as they grow more resistant to drugs that used to be able to destroy them. Antibiotics have been effective in the treatment of tuberculosis, polio, whooping cough, tetanus and malaria. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could make the fatality rates for these diseases spike again.


Shigella causes diarrheal disease in children. Studies show an increasing occurrence of resistant strains. (CDC)

Misuse and overuse of antibiotics is part of the problem. A contributing cause, experts say, is inadequate investment made in new and better antibiotics in recent years.


The World Health Organization (WHO) raised the vision of a “post-antibiotic era” in a 2014 assessment of the problem.

”This serious threat is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country,” the agency reported. Even though super bugs are on the loose, causing disease and festering infection, the global data about how frequently it happens is incomplete.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a better handle on U.S. data. It calculated that 2 million American people were infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in 2013, and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections.

The Obama administration announced a plan for addressing this health threat in March. It calls on U.S. agencies, international partners, individuals and organizations to collaborate, working across disciplines of public health, veterinary medicine and other fields.



MRSA can cause life-threatening bloodstream infections, pneumonia and surgical-site infections. (NIAID)



These partners will work toward five goals:

  • Slow the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria.

  • Strengthen surveillance to combat resistance.

  • Advance development and use of diagnostic tests for superbugs.

  • Accelerate research and development for new antibiotics and vaccines.

  • Improve international collaboration for prevention, surveillance and control of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic research and development.

The head of the CDC, Dr. Tom Frieden, frequently warns that a disease outbreak anywhere is a threat everywhere. “We still have time to close the door on antibiotic resistance. … That’s a key challenge for the next decade in many aspects of global health.”


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