在澳洲 分居/离婚的财产分割 解析

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Property and Financial Settlement following separationor divorce

分居/离婚的财产分割


If you and your spouse or partner (including same-sexpartners) have separated, you will no doubt be wondering how you will divide upyour property and other financial assets.

如果你和你的配偶或伴侣(包括同性伴侣)分离,你无疑会想知道将如何分割你们的财产和其他资产。


In this article, we talk about your first meeting withyour solicitor and what information to bring along to that meeting, as well aslooking at going to court versus settling out of court.  We also discusthe four step process that the court will follow when it determines how yourproperty and financial matters will be settled.  These same steps willalso apply if you are attempting to reach an agreement out of court.

在本文中,我们将讨论当第一次和律师会面你需要携带什么资料,以及庭内和庭外解决的不同。我们还将讨论法院将采取的五个步骤来决定你的财产如何分配。如果你试图庭外达成协议和平分割财产,相同的步骤也将应用。


Property and financial matters can be settledimmediately upon separation, so couples who are married do not need to waituntil they are divorced.However, if you and your spouse have already divorced,and have not yet been able to come to an agreement about how your property andfinancial matters should be settled, you must issue Court proceedings within 12months of the date of your divorce. For de factorelationships, the time limit in which you must issueCourt proceedings is two years from the date of separation.

一旦夫妇正式分居财产分割可以立即开始,所以不需要等到离婚后再进行。然而,如果你和你的配偶已经离婚,但是有关财产如何分割尚未能达成协议,那你们必须在离婚后的12个月内寻求法庭审理。对于同居关系的配偶,在分开后的2年内可以寻求法庭审理。

Regardless of whether your separation/divorce isamicable, it is considered a conflict of interest for the same law firm to actfor both you and your former spouse/partner, so you will each need to obtainyour own independent legal advice.

无论你们的分居或离婚是友好和平的,但是对于你们各自的委托律师来看,这是一个利益冲突的法律纠纷,所以你们各自都需要获得独立的法律顾问/律师代表。


You and your former spouse/partner may have alreadycome to an agreement about how you wish to deal with your property andfinancial assets, and may simply require legal advice about the terms of theagreement and how you may go about formalising it so that it is legally bindingand enforceable.

你和你的前配偶/伴侣可能已经达成协议关于你们希望如何处理财产和资产的分配,可能仅仅需要法律援助关于如何设定协议的条款以及想要知道如何最后起草以便这个协议是具有法律约束和执行力。

Conversely, there may be factors such as violence orhostility which mean that it is difficult or inappropriate for you tocommunicate directly with your former spouse/partner about negotiating a property settlement.

然而,可能在此期间对方有暴力或敌意等行为,这意味着你与对方直接沟通谈判如何分割财产存在一定的困难或不安全。


Your solicitor can discuss with you the best approachin both of these situations.

在这样的情况下你的律师会用最好的办法协助你与对方交流。


- What will happen at the firstmeeting with your solicitor

第一次与律师会面

When you firstmeet with a solicitor about settling your property and financial matters, youwill be asked a number of questions about yourself, your former spouse/partnerand your relationship. You will also be asked questions about the financialcircumstances at the beginning of the relationship and during the relationship,as well as your current financial circumstances. It will help if you canprovide as much detail as possible.

当你第一次会见律师咨询有关财产分割问题时,你会被问到一些关于你本人,前配偶/伴侣和你的关系问题。你也会被询问经济状况:在最初关系时,交往期间以及当前你的财政方面的状态。如果你能尽可能提供多点的细节,这将对你后续工作更有帮助。


Your solicitor will ask you about 你的律师将提出以下方面的问题:

•   joint and individual assets and liabilities; 联名和个人资产和负债;

•   superannuation entitlements 养老津贴;

•   your employment and income 就业和收入;

•   any business or company interests 任何业务或公司利息;

•   whether any assets are held by a trust 任何信托资产;

•   your bank accounts (including credit cards) 你的银行账户(包括信用卡);

•   any other relevant financial matters 任何其他相关财务事项


Based on the information you provide, your solicitorwill be able to give you advice about the likely range of outcomes in yourcircumstances. They will discuss with you the principles of law that areapplied in determining how your assets will be settled (see “the four stepprocess” below) as well as the process involved in reaching a settlement orgoing to Court.

根据你提供的信息,律师会根据你的情况给出一些可能范围的结果。律师将将会解释运用在财产分割的法律条文(参见下面的五步骤”)以及达成协议或法院解决的步骤。

Your solicitor will also discuss the issues of spousalmaintenance and child support with you.

律师还将与你讨论对配偶的离婚抚养制度和子女抚养问题。

-What should you bring to yourfirst meeting with your solicitor?

第一次会面律师需要携带什么资料?

Chronology of relevant dates相关的日期

Before you meet with your solicitor, it will behelpful to prepare a chronology of relevant dates, including:

在会见律师前,你需要确认以下事件的日期

•   the date you started living together; 开始同居的日期

•   the date you were married (if applicable); 结婚日期(如果有的话);

•   the date you separated;分开日期

•   the dates of birth of any children; 任何孩子的出生日期

•   the date of purchase or sale of assets; and 购买或出售资产的日期;

•   an employment and income history. 就业和收入的情况(合约和工资单)


If you do not know exact dates, try and estimate theapproximate month or even year.

如果你不知道准确的时间,可以提供大概的月份或者年份


-Values of assets and liabilities 资产和负债的价值

Where possible, you should try to estimate theapproximate values of each of your assets (such as properties, cars,businesses, shares and bank accounts). If you have obtained appraisals orvaluations of any assets, these should be provided to your solicitor. Youshould also find out the current balance of any of your liabilities, such asmortgages or credit card debts, and bring the statements with you.

在可能的情况下,你应该试着预估你所有资产的近似值(如房产、汽车、公司股份,股票和银行账户)。如果你有任何资产的评估证,需要及时提供给你的律师。你也应该显示任何负债的账单,例如抵押贷款或信用卡债务,也需要提供给律师。

If you and your former spouse/partner disagree aboutthe value of an asset or if the value is not known, it may be necessary toobtain independent or certified valuations.

如果你和你的前配偶/伴侣不同意资产的价值评估或资产价值是未知的,可能需要寻求独立或认证的评估机构进行操作。


-Copies of relevant certificates, agreements or Orders 相关证书,协议或命令的复印件


If you were married, you will need to bring a copy ofthe Marriage Certificate and, if relevant, your Divorce Order.

如果你们已经结婚,你需要提供结婚证书以及离婚的证书(如果有的话)。


If there are any existing Orders or Agreements inplace between you and your former spouse/partner, these will also needto be provided.

如果你和你的前配偶/伴侣之间有任何命令或协议,也需要提供给律师。



-Other relevant documentation 其他相关文件

It is important to provide your solicitor with as muchdocumentation as possible in relation to your current financial circumstancesand your financial history, including bank statements, superannuationstatements, trust deeds, individual and business tax returns and businessfinancial statements.


提供律师尽可能多的文件有关你目前经济环境和过往的经济历史,包括银行对账单,退休金账单,信托契约,个人和企业纳税申报表以及公司的财务报表。

It is compulsory that both parties exchange allrelevant financial documents before reaching any final property settlement.This enables both solicitors to gain a full understanding of each party’sfinancial circumstances and to compile an accurate list of the assets andliabilities.


在得到最后的财产分割协议前,双方有义务交换所有财产方面的文件。这使双方律师能够全面理解每一方的经济情况和编译一个准确的资产和负债表格。


 Going to court versus settlingout of court法院审理 VS 庭外解决

Your solicitor will discuss with you the best courseof action, which will either involve settling out of courtor issuing proceedings and going through the court process.

你的律师需要和你讨论对你最有益的处理方法,这将涉及到庭外解决或通过法院诉讼过程。

1)      Settling out of court庭外解决


Once all relevant financial documents and valuationshave been obtained and exchanged, negotiations can commence as to how yourassets and liabilities are to be divided between you. This can be achieved bysuch methods as:

一旦所有资产的相关文件和估值已经获得和交换,有关资产和负债如何分配的协商就可以开始了。可以通过以下方法进行协商:

•   putting an offer in writing 文字形式草拟意向;

•   a round table conference; or一个圆桌会议;或

•   mediation 中介调解


At a round table conference, both parties and theirlawyers meet to try and settle your matter.

在圆桌会议上,双方以及各自的律师都会将在场,试图解决你们的问题。


Mediation, as the name suggests, involves a mediatorwho is usually an experienced family lawyer. The mediator will act as a neutraland independent person to try and help the parties come to a resolution.          

中介调解,顾名思义就是一个调停者通常是一位有经验的家庭律师。调停者将作为一个中立的和独立的人,试图帮助双方当事人达成决议。


If an agreement is reached, your solicitor willformalise the agreement in writing so that it is binding and enforceable.

如果达成协议,你的律师将正式起草有法律效应和约束力的书面正式协议。


2)  Issuing proceedings and court process 提出诉讼和法院流程


If you and your former spouse/partner are unable tocome to an agreement after making attempts to settle out of court, it may benecessary to issue proceedings at the Family Court of Australia (or theFederal Circuit Court).

如果你和你的前配偶/伴侣试图庭外和解但仍无法达成协议,那双方可能需要在澳大利亚的家庭法院提起诉讼(或联邦巡回法院)


This involves your solicitor preparing an Application(setting out the outcome that you are seeking) and a Financial Statement (whichsets out your current financial circumstances). An Affidavit may also need tobe filed, which sets out in written form, your version of events and yourevidence in support of your claim. Once the Application has been filed, thecourt will list your matter for a Case Assessment Conference before a Registrarin the Family Court or a Directions Hearing in the Federal Circuit Court.

这涉及到律师将准备申请材料(陈述当事人所需求的结果)和财务报表(陈述你当前的财政情况)。一份宣誓书可能也需要提交,需要以书面形式陈述事件描述以及提供证据证明你的说辞。一旦申请被接受,法院会将你的案件列于CAC(案件审核会议)档案中,这个会发生在家庭法院注册前或联邦巡回法院的庭审前。

The Case Assessment Conference provides an opportunityto settle your matter before it proceeds any further. If the matter cannot beresolved at this stage, you will then be required to attend a ConciliationConference before a Registrar and this presents a further opportunity toresolve your matter before it is listed for a final hearing.

案件评估会议(CAC)在进行下一步前,会给双方提供了一个机会来解决问题。如果事情还是不能在这个阶段解决,双方将被要求参加一个调解会议在案件登记前,这个调解会议将会提供一个进一步的机会让当事人能解决问题在这个会议被列为最后的听证会前。


At the final hearing, your matter will be heard beforea Judge (or Federal Magistrate) who, at the conclusion of hearing the evidenceand submissions of both the parties, will make a determination of the matterand make the Orders considered appropriate within the guidelines of the FamilyLaw Act.

在最后的听证会上,双方的问题将被听审在法官(或联邦法官) - 这个人会最后听审双方供词和提交的材料,然后根据家庭法律的条款做出最后的判决和命令。


- The Court adopts a five stepprocess5个步骤

The Court adopts a five stepprocess in determining how your property and financial matters will be settled.These steps are also applied in attempting to reach an agreement out of court.

法院采用五个步骤决定如何解决双方的财产分割。这些步骤也适用庭外达成协议的方法。


The steps are 这些步骤是:

1.    Consideration of whether aproperty settlement is necessary

考虑财产分割是否有必要的。

The first important consideration for the Court is todetermine whether or not it is actually necessary to proceed with a propertysettlement.

法庭首要考虑的是双方的财产分割是否有必要进行。


•      In the vast majority of cases,the Court will decide that it is just and equitable for there to be a propertysettlement or a change in the ownership of a property.  However, in somecases, the Court will decide that each party should simply keep what theypresently own.

在绝大多数的情况下,法院将下达公正和公平的财产分割或业务所有权的变化。然而,在某些情况下,法院将决定双方应该保持拥有目前各自的财产。

This may be because 这个可能因为:

•   the parties have decided to keep their financialaffairs and arrangements totally separate throughout the relationship;

当事人决定他们的财务和财政安排在他们整个关系上一直完全保持独立的关系;

•   the relationship was of a very short duration; or 双方关系时间甚短


•   the parties separated many years ago and haveorganised their affairs on the basis of an informal agreement since that time. 双方在很多年前已经分居,自那时开始双方根据一个非正式的协议自行管理各自的事物。

2.    Identify and value the assetsand liabilities

确认和评估资产和负债


This involves compiling a list of all assets andliabilities (including superannuation) that are in the individual and/or jointnames of you and your former spouse/partner, and attributing a value to them.

这包括编译所有资产和负债的列表(包括退休金),这个是在个人名下和双方共同名下,以及分配到各自账户的数额

Values can be approximate or may be determined by wayof a formal valuation, as they should be as accurate as possible. The resultshould be a table of assets and liabilities which your solicitors will use to determinethe value of the total asset pool to be divided.

价值可以是近似值或由正式的评估机构提供的报告,因为机构将会给出尽可能准确的数值。最终的结果应该是资产和负债的总表格,律师将会使用这个表格的数值结果来确定总资产池将如何被划分。


It is also standard practice to establish what theasset pool was when you first started living together (which may have occurredprior to marriage) to work out any increase in asset values and to establishwhat each party brought into the relationship (referred to as initialcontributions).

建立资产池也是标准的做法当双方第一次开始生活在一起(结婚前可能发生),算出任何资产增值数和建立双方在这场关系期间奉献多少(称为初始援款)


3.  Assess contributions评估贡献


Once an asset pool has been established, yoursolicitor will ask questions about each party’s contributions to the assetpool.

一旦建立了一个资产池,律师会提问双方对这个资产池的贡献


Contributions can be 贡献可能是:


•   financial (such as by way of income, mortgage paymentsor inheritances)

    经济(如收入,贷款或遗产);

•   non-financial (such as labour to undertakerenovations); or

    非经济(如进行整修的劳动力);或

•   by way of being a homemaker and parent.

    作为一个家庭主妇和家长

Contributions are usually calculated as a notionalpercentage, such as 50/50 or 60/40.

贡献通常是用百分百数字来计算的,50/5060/40


4.  Assess “future needs” 评估“未来需求”


Once contributions have been assessed, your solicitors(or the court) will consider what are referred to as the “future needs” of bothparties. These include

一旦双方的贡献值被评估出来你的律师(或法院)将考虑双方的“未来需求”。这些包括:

•   the age and health of the parties; 双方的年龄和健康;

•   the earning capacity of the parties; 双方的挣钱能力;

•   whether one party will have the care of youngchildren; 一方是否照顾年幼的孩子

•   the duration of the marriage or relationship; and 婚姻或关系的持续时间

•   any other relevant consideration 其他相关因素的考虑


The assessment of future needs will impact thenotional percentage reached in Step 2, so that the percentage split of theasset pool may increase or decrease in favour of one or other of the parties totake into account any relevant future needs factors.

“未来需求”的评估将影响在步骤2中得到的百分比率,这样的资产池比例分割可能会帮助一方或者其他方增加或减少获得的资产,这个是根据考虑各方的任何有关未来的需求因素而决定分割比例的。

5.  Is the division of assets just and equitable?

资产的划分是公正和公平的?


Taking each of the previous steps into account, your solicitors,or the court, will then consider whether the final division of assets asproposed by the parties is just and equitable in all of the circumstances. Thismay involve assessing the practical effect of any proposed division of theasset pool.

考虑到前面的每一个步骤,你的律师或者法院将考虑是否最终的资产划分(由当事人提议的划分方案)在所有的情况下是公正和公平的。这可能涉及到评估任何提议的资产池划分的实际效果。


想要了解详细资料或者目前需要这方面服务的,请电话/微信与我们预约时间。



巴特勒律师事务所(Butler Lawyers)


留学移民/商业法/雇佣法/家庭法/房产法


电话:(08)7230 3107


微信:Butlerlawyers_admin or 0450786241


QQ: 3277057895


Email: mark@butlerlawyers.com.au


网址:www.butlerlawyers.com.au


地址:Suite 2 9-15 Field Street,Adelaide South Australia 5000


作者:巴特勒律师事务所 授权 阿德莱德bbs 发布

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