【Kevin老师专栏】五招!让Heading答案无处可逃(下)

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HEADING(下)

IELTS


又到了Kevin老师的专栏时间,小伙伴们还记得Kevin老师之前讲解的Heading解题思路上么。忘记了的小伙伴,可以在微信平台的历史记录里寻找一下。那我们就开始咯!


第四,如果在段落结尾出现了研究结论性的语言, 如: The research findings/the study/ the investigation/the analysis/the evidences show/reveal/indicate/suggest/imply/prove that………, 那么段落中心一般在其后.。需要注意的是也有一些文章把研究的成果放在段落开头。所以如果在段首看到了这样的句子也要注意,存在中心的可能性很高。

例题

The evidence for a revised view of Amazonia will take many people by surprise. Ecologists have assumed that tropical ecosystems were shaped entirely by natural forces and they have focused their research on habitats they believe have escaped human influence. But as the University of Florida ecologist, Peter Feinsinger, has noted, an approach that leaves people out of the equation is no longer tenable. The archaeological evidence shows that the natural history of Amazonia is to a surprising extent tied to the activities of its prehistoric inhabitants.


在这段话里, 中心句即为最后一句 “The archaeological evidence shows that the natural history of Amazonia is to a surprising extent tied to the activities of its prehistoric inhabitants”. 此句的中文意思是: 考古证据表明, 出乎人们的意料, 亚玛逊的自然历史和当地史前居民的活动息息相关. 所以正确答案是 “vi. The influence of prehistoric inhabitants on Amazonian natural history”。值得注意的是这道题有一个干扰项 即 “iv. Recent evidence”。 如果读了此段话的第一句 “The evidence for a revised view of Amazonia will take many people by surprise”。很多学生就会被这句话里的evidence 和 iv中的evidence相对应所吸引, 但要注意的是选项中说的是最近的证据, 而句子中谓语部分动词要强调的是让人吃惊的证据, 所以选项并不能反映这句话的意思, 因此iv 是干扰项, 这句话也并不是这段话的中心句. 考生们需要注意的是千万不能因为句子中的某一个词和选项中一致就认为它是正确答案, 只有准确和完整反映了句子要点的选项才是正确答案。


例题2

Although the lives of the Siriono have changed in the intervening decades, the image of them as Stone Age relics has endured. Indeed, in many respects the Siriono epitomise the popular conception of life in Amazonia. To casual observers, as well as to influential natural scientists and regional planners, the luxuriant forests of Amazonia seem ageless, unconquerable, a habitat totally hostile to human civilisation. The apparent simplicity of Indian ways of life has been judged an evolutionary adaptation to forest ecology, living proof that Amazonia could not - and cannot - sustain a more complex society. Archaeological traces of far more elaborate cultures have been dismissed as the ruins of invaders from outside the region, abandoned to decay in the uncompromising tropical environment.


在这段话里, 从首开始分析第一句, 发现第一句使用了让步的逻辑关系, 那么句子的中心就在非让步的部分, 这句话的意思是 “虽然在这几年里SIRIONO人的生活发生了很大变化, 但他们石器时代的形象仍然持续下来”, 如果这句话是中心句, 应该有一个选项体现了 “SIRIONO人石器时代形象未改变” 这个主题, 但是选项中并没有这样的对应点, 那就说明此句并非中心句, 由于第二句话的开头使用了 “INDEED” 这个词, 也说明第二句不会是中心句, 因为 “ indeed, in fact, actually”这样的词都是用于对前面信息进一步的事实解释和强调. 这样就要转移到对段落结尾两句话的分析上 (注意很多题目的中心并不一定是最后一句, 所以只读最后一句是一个很危险的固执做法, 请相信老师的实践经验, 只要文章不是特别短的情况, 请读最后两句), 在这段话的倒数第二句里发现了值得注意的两个信息点: 1. living proof 这个词表明活生生的证明了什么, 说明前面在摆一些事实和证据, 从这开始对前面进行研究结论的总结 2. could not—cannot, 连续两次对否定进行重复说明这个点是这句话想要突出的首要考点, 由此得出结论 “i. Amazonia as unable to sustain complex society”。


最后,如果在段落结尾出现了观点结论性的语言, 如: from this viewpoint/ from this perspective/ from this angle/ from this standpoint/ in this sense…那么段落中心一般在其后。

例题

The myth of scientific method is not only that it is inductive (which we have seen is incorrect) but also that the hypothetico-deductive method proceeds in a step-by-step, inevitable fashion. Thehypothetico-deductive method describes the logical approach to much research work, but it does not describe the psychological behaviour that brings it about. This is much more holistic —involving guesses, reworkings, corrections, blind alleys and above all inspiration, in the deductive as well as the hypothetic component -than is immediately apparent from reading the final thesis or published papers. These have been, quite properly, organised into a more serial, logical order so that the worth of the output may be evaluated independently of the behavioural processes by which it was obtained. It is the difference, for example between the academic papers with which Crick and Watson demonstrated the structure of the DNA molecule and the fascinating book The Double Helix in which Watson (1968) described how they did it. From this point of view, ‘scientific method’ may more usefully be thought of as a way of writing up research rather than as a way of carrying it out.


在讲义这段话里, 中心句为最后一句话, 整段文章较抽象, 但在最后却给出了观点总结的指令词 “from this point of view”, 那说明文章的前面在解释这个观点的内容, 而到最后对这个观点做了总结, 最后一句话突出了两者的比较, 根据我们在课上所提到的在两者比较的逻辑关系中, 两者比较对象是很重要的, 所以答案为 “vi. how research is done and how it is reported”。 


对于上述五种中心句在段尾的标志,剑桥系列练习题中有不少类似的例子,在做练习时应该加大对这些标志词的敏感度。与此同时,如果段落中不存在这些明显标志,快速浏览段首及其后的内容是需要的,但应格外关注段落中一些典型的逻辑标志词周围的信息或重复性较高的信息,这些信息往往都折射出了段落的中心含意。


今天的Kevin老师Heading解题思路就顺利完结了。

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