【留美学生专栏】地球力量计划之"预防外来物种入侵中国"|美国瑞德教育

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收藏文章 赞一个 已赞 2016-05-12 美国瑞德教育



活动发起人介绍



刘之皓 Connor Liu,15岁,中国留美学生,目前在美国宾夕法尼亚州Friend’s Central School就读中学8年级。性格开朗健谈,对世界历史,古生物学略有涉猎。目前正在学习舞台表演与戏剧艺术。


“地球力量计划之中国入侵物种”活动的发起人,策划人及项目工作人员。




李保尔 Paul Li 男 14岁 目前在Friends' Central School 就读8年级,他认为入侵物种问题非常严重,社会所给的关注却很少,需要更多的宣传,让市民们对入侵物种问题有更多的了解!“地球力量计划之中国入侵物种” 的项目工作人员。





"预防外来物种入侵中国"呼吁目的



在这个项目中,我们以中国为例,向您展示这些入侵物种是如何进入中国,以及它们如何影响中国的生态系统和人类社会。我们将在微信上发布一些文章和在南京的一个面对面落地宣传活动。我们希望更多的人认识到入侵物种的危害以及如何根治。


通常,入侵物种的共同特点有:


高生长速度、强大繁殖能力、快速蔓延的能力、表现性弹性(可以改变生长模式以适应现有环境)、可耐受各种环境、一个很广的生態幅度、与人类有关



入侵物种


水花生




水花生,又名空心莲子草或者革命草,是世界公认的恶性杂草之一。生于南美洲,现作为外来入侵物种广泛分布在北美洲、澳洲、非洲和亚洲的热带、暖温带湿地。这种植物喜欢温暖潮湿的环境,抗寒能力很强。而最恐怖的莫过于这种植物强悍的生命力,干湿都可以疯长,在猪牛的粪便里都可以繁殖。1930年这种植物传入中国,是危害极大的入侵物种。


水花生的主要危害有:(1)堵塞航道,影响水上交通;(2)排挤其他植物,使群落物种单一化;(3)覆盖水面,影响鱼类生长和捕捞;(4)在农田危害作物,使产量受损;(5)田间沟渠大量繁殖,影响农田排灌;(6)入侵湿地、草坪,破坏景观;(7)滋生蚊蝇,危害人类健康。


Alternanthera philoxeroides, is a malignant weed . It's original from South America. Now, it widely distributed in North America, Australia, Africa and Asia as invasive species.


Alternanthera philoxeroides like the warm and humid environment, and it has very strong cold-resistance. This plant has pretty powerful vitality. No matter the environment is dry or humid,it just grows.


In 1930, this plant was introduced into China, and it became one of the invasive species in China in a very short period of time.(1)influences the traffic on rivers、(2)not good  for other plants( they never work with other plants);(3)covers the river , (bad for the growth of fish and fishing);(4) damages crops;(5) produces in the farmland, which is a very bad thing because it makes agricultural irrigation harder.;(6) grows on yards;(7) the breeding of flies


松材线虫




松材线虫是一种松树寄生虫。它通过松墨天牛等媒介昆虫传播,被其感染的松树,针叶呈黄褐色或红褐色,整株干枯死亡,最终腐烂。松材线虫原产北美洲,在美国、加拿大、墨西哥等国均有发现。根据资料指出,松材线虫由美国传入日本,再由日本于20世纪80年代传入中国大陆、台湾和韩国,中国大陆境内于1982年在南京中山陵首次发现,以后相继在江苏、安徽等14个省区市成灾,累计致死松树5亿多株,毁灭松林500多万亩,是中国大陆危害较大的外来入侵物种之一。松材线虫严重威胁用材林。由于扩展迅速,现已对黄山、张家界等风景名胜区的天然针叶林构成了巨大威胁。


Pine wood nematode is a parasite of pine trees. It spreads by vector insects like Monochamus beetles. Whenever it gets on pine tree, the pine needles of the pine tree will look brown or reddish-brown, and the whole tree will die. Pine wood nematodes are original from North America,people found them in Mexico, Canada or U.S.


According to the information i got, pine wood nematodes were brought from U.S.A to Japan,then the Japanese brought them to China, Taiwan and Korea in 1980s. People first found them in Nanjing in China, then Jiangsu, Anhui and altogther 14 different states. They killed 500 millions pine trees , destroyed more than 500 acres of pine forest in total. Pine wood nematodes is one of the most harmful invasive species in China.


非洲大蜗牛




1966年因一个孩子从夏威夷携带了2-3只非洲大蜗牛到迈阿密,3年内便传遍了整个迈阿密州,花园内的花卉植物枝叶几乎被吃光。


1932年我国台湾省作为食物将非洲大蜗牛引种繁殖,有部分被弃于田野,结果导致了上世纪50年代台湾农业的毁灭性灾难。


2006年云南富宁县部分乡镇的菜地、农田里蔓延着一种“非洲大蜗牛”,使全县3.1万亩农作物不同程度遭受危害。


2013年今年8月有媒体报道,美国佛罗里达州迈阿密近两年遭大量非洲大蜗牛入侵,当局已花费600万美元清剿,至今成功捕捉12.8万只。据报道,目前,为更有效地对付大蜗牛,当局正训练拉拉多犬协助嗅出气味,找出大蜗牛藏身处。

 

In 1966, a child brought 2-3 giant african snails to Miami. Giant african snails were everywhere in Miami. They ate all the plants and flowers.

In 1932, Taiwan brought giant african snails in and grew them for food. Some of themwere left in the field which made Taiwan's agriculture destroyed in 1950s.


In 2006, giant african snails were in farmland in Funing, Yunnan. They damaged 21 kilometers squared of corps.


In August 2013, a lot of giant african snails invaded into Florida. The state government spent $6 million to kill them. They already caught 128 thousand snails. Government started training police dogs to find those snails.


一些中国人认为非洲大蜗牛非常可爱,因此他们想引进蜗牛来当他们的宠物。在南京,一些人试图吃非洲大蜗牛吃完之后病得很厉害,去医院发现他们感染了结核病和嗜酸性脑膜炎,而原因就是因为他们误食了非洲大蜗牛。非洲大蜗牛可以吃庄稼和水泥,所以在南京旁边几个城市的农民大批量亏损。因为人们缺乏对入侵物种的认识,所以他们会给予物种破坏土地,健康和经济的机会。


Some Chinese thought that giant african snails are very cute, so they wanted the snails to be their pets. In Nanjing, some people tried to eat the giant african snails. People got very sick and went to hospital because they inflect Tuberculosis and Eosinophilic meningitis from the snails. The giant african snails can eat corps and cement. Because of the lack of the understanding of invasive species, people are giving chances to the species to damage their land, health and economy.

 

“北纬28°(浙江)以南,非洲大蜗牛是不能放生的。如果放生就会泛滥成灾。”黄成(中共如皋市委副书记)说,非洲大蜗牛喜欢潮湿温暖,而北纬28°以南的区域内,冬天也相对温暖。比如南宁,冬天也会下雪,但下雪的日子非常短,也就一两天就过去了。对于非洲大蜗牛来说,它们躲进泥土中冬眠就躲过去了。


"If you release giant african snails anywhere South of latitude 28 ° (Zhejiang), they will be flooded."  said by Huang Cheng.  giant african snails like warm and humid. The region that is south of such as latitude 28 ° will still be relatively warm in winter. Nanning, the snow the days is about a day or two later. For African snail, they can hide in the soil to hibernate.


成体壳长一般有7-8厘米,最大可超过20厘米。喜栖息于植被丰富的阴暗潮湿环境及腐殖质多的地方。原产于非洲东部沿岸,目前已扩散至南亚、东南亚、日本、美国等国家和地区,非洲大蜗牛可危害500多种作物,侵害对象包括农作物、林木、花卉等,且具有摄食凶猛、生长迅速、繁殖能力强等生物特性,在国际上号称“田园杀手”。非洲大蜗牛的繁殖速度极快,雌雄同体,异体交配,一次产卵数达100-400枚。一旦传入,可通过各种途径迅速扩散。


Adult shell length is generally 7-8 cm, the largest can be more than 20 cm. It loves to stay in  dark and humid places with many vegetations and humus. Native to the eastern coast of Africa. It has spread to South Asia, Southeast Asia, Japan, the United States and other countries The giant African snail can harm more than 500 kinds of crops, including farming crops, trees, flowers, etc.. It has feeding fierce, rapid growth and reproductive ability and other biological characteristics. It is known as "pastoral killer". Giant african snail is androgynous, allogeneic mating. It can spawn a number of 100-400 eggs for one time. Once it is released, it can spread rapidly through in variety of ways.

同胞们,尊重地球就是尊重生命,拯救地球就是拯救未来,勿以善小而不为,让我们从身边的小事做起,珍惜资源,珍爱家园;转发本文,付出一点行动,保卫我们赖以生存的家园。


本文作者:刘之皓,李保尔。文章来源于网络,版权归作者所有,如有侵权请联系删除。


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