高端炫富:连考10次托福竟然只是为了……

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美联乐闻 陈小睿 2016.5.22 托福考题解析



是的,我,陈小睿,花了1641元参加了一次托福考试(论提前报名的好处,哈哈)。之后我还会参加好多好多次托福考试,每个月2次的频率。所以无论这篇文章写了什么,都不能掩盖这是一篇炫富文的事实。所以你一定要坚持把文章看完,看我努力的含着泪把所有的考试和解析都搞定的炫富能坚持到什么时候。



考点照和黑哥镇楼,瞬间有泪点的同学请点赞!



  Such a lovely place, such a lovely face.——<Hotel California>



2016.5.22 托福考题解析


1
阅读


  1  考古学家家认为在骨头上的14个marks是古代记录lunar year的方法,这些marks是人为的,按group pattern排列,刚好和新月到圆月,圆月到新月的时间一样。古人用marks作为日历去推算一些事件发生的时间和周期,例如洪水和怀孕。虽然最长的pattern只有2.5个月,但还是很有用的。最终还导致了writing的出现。


拥有计算时间和周期的能力是一件很厉害的事情,所以很多人认为古人有抽象思考的能力。但这个观点也受到了质疑:有一些人做事情是不需要提醒的,比如游牧民族的人,因为他们知道什么时候出发去打猎,以及打猎的周期等等,所以骨头也可能只是工具,骨头上的marks是在使用工具的时候留下的。


  2  昆虫翅膀的进化


第一种理论:翅膀是由身体的某个部位进化而来的。但这个理论存在争议,举例:prowings和身体的连接方式;需要肌肉控制翅膀运动。


【背景补充】侧板翅源说是 Kukalova-Peck 1983 年提出的新观点,她根据对化石昆虫的研究认为原始昆虫附肢的上基节与体壁结合并与亚基节一起形成昆虫体壁的侧板,起呼吸作用的上肢节的外颚叶扩大形成了具有滑翔作用的原翅(prowing),以后原翅基部分化出相应的关节,变成能动的翅。


第二种理论:翅膀是由腿部肌肉组织进化而来的,反驳第一种理论:有一种化学传感器官不在背部而是在腿部。


【背景补充】侧背叶学说是 Packard 1898 年在 Müller (1875)和 Woodward (1876) 发现的基础提出后经 Crampton(1916)完善并命名的一种学说,也是近几十年来被广为接受的一种学说。按照该学说翅由胸部的 侧背叶(paranotum)形成。石炭纪的一种化石昆虫 Stenodictya lobata 除中、后胸有原始的前、后翅外, 前胸及腹部各节各有 1 对扁平的薄片(即侧背叶),中、后胸上的翅正是由类似的薄片演变而来。侧背叶 的正面与背板相连,反面与侧板相连,所以侧背叶是一个双层构造;对翅的组织发生研究结果也与此推论 相符。


第三个理论:prowings来自水上漂的昆虫的腮(气管鳃),当wings的肌肉越来越强大的时候就可以起飞了。


【背景补充】气管鳃翅源说为 Gegenbaur 1870 年提出,他认为昆虫的祖先为水生,当时用气管鳃呼吸,后来变为陆生时,气管鳃就变成了翅。


翅膀进化是有争议的,而捕食者是最有可能导致进化的原因。因为通过感受风和震动来产生预警捕食者的效果。


参考文献:Marcello La Greca (1980) Origin and evolution of wings and flight in insects, Bolletino di zoologia, 47:sup1, 65-82, DOI: 10.1080/11250008009438706


以上关于昆虫的解析来自于男神小白老师——白宜玄 Ben Nevis


  3  sugar(sweet)最初是作为保存进口食物的保鲜剂,只有贵族才会找甜品商做交易。而到了某个时候,因为科技发展,sugar变得越来越多,中产阶级也开始去购买sugar。


接下来,sugar发展为hard candy,小孩子们特别喜欢,买的也很多,成为了主要的消费人群(有题)。


后来人们把sugar和医药结合在一起,糖衣+药,抑制了药的苦味(有题)


再后来有人发明了sugar drops,进一步发明了大量生产糖的方法,糖的多样性也多了起来。


2
2016.5.22 词汇题:


1. rudimentary = primitive


重复考察:2010.12.4 2016.5.7 


例句:He received rudimentary village schooling, but mostly he roamed his uncle's farm collecting the fossils that were so abundant in the rocks of the Cotswold hills. <TPO6 William Smith>


These early versions were rudimentary, inaccurate, and prone to breakdown.<TPO30 The Invention of the Mechanical Clock>


例题:The word “rudimentary” in the passage is closest in meaning to


○ rare

○ small

○ impractical

○ basic


2. functions = role


3. retain= keep


重复考察:2015.3.15 retains=preserves


例句:When it is struck, a tuning fork produces an almost pure tone, retaining its pitch over a long period of time.<英语100句>


Although there have been continued developments since the middle 1800's, our modern guitar retains most of what was developed nearly 150 years ago. <A Brief History of the Guitar>


例题:The word “retained” in the passage is closest in meaning to


○gained

○established

○profited from

○maintained


4. recommend= support


重复考察 2010.12.12 At the urging of = under the recommendation of


5. motives= reasons


例句:Steam became the motive force of the Industrial Revolution as coal and iron ore were the raw materials.<TPO6 Powering the Industrial Revolution>


In addition to exploring the possible antecedents of theater, scholars have also theorized about the motives that led people to develop theater.<TPO1 The Origins of Theater>


例题:The word “impulse” in the passage is closest in meaning to


   ○ basic motive

   ○ only choice

   ○ capacity

   ○ opportunity


6. aim to do =intend to do


例句:The first aim of the American army led by George Washington was to force the British, called Redcoats because of the colour of their uniform, to leave Boston.<The American Revolution 1775>


As a nonviolent mass protest movement, it aimed at breaking down segregation and regaining the vote for disfranchised Southern blacks.<American History>


7. enduring=lasting


重复考察:2015.12.5


例句:Another seemingly plausible explanation—that infants do not form enduring memories at this point in development—also is incorrect.<TPO6 Infantile Amnesia>

The ribs are special structures that are also used for enduring extreme heat.<the code of Hammurabi>


例题:The word “persistent” in the passage is closest in meaning to


○adjusted

○strong

○enduring

○predicted


8. sophisticated= complex


例句:Play appears to be a developmental characteristic of animals with fairly sophisticated nervous systems, mainly birds and mammals.<TPO30 Role of Play in Development>


In the following centuries, increasingly sophisticated waterpower mills were built throughout the Roman Empire and beyond its boundaries in the Middle East and northern Europe.<TPO29 The History of Waterpower>


例题:The word “sophisticated” in the passage is closest in meaning to


○complex

○amazing

○creative

○practical


9. foundation=basic


例句:The realization that the physical self has continuity in time, according to this hypothesis, lays the foundation for the emergence of autobiographical memory.<TPO21 Autobiographical Memory>


Just as important, the culture also possessed the basic foundation for an effective maritime adaptation, including outrigger canoes and a variety of fishing techniques that could be effective for overseas voyaging.<TPO5 The Origin of the Pacific Island People>


10. fulfilling=performing


例句:Some of the demand for the services and goods was no doubt fulfilled by people drawn from far afield, but some local people certainly became entwined in this new economy.<TPO19 The Roman Army's Impact on Britain>


In the absence of a tradition of Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill.<TPO47 Roman Cultural Influence on Britain>


11. anticipate=predict


例句:Jordan made his much-anticipated return before a sellout crowd at Madison Square Garden.


更多词汇题的释义、音标、词根词缀解析、托福例句、GRE例句,请大家买这本书——文勇的《新托福千词百练》,我为它写了一个推荐语:考场上总有你意想不到的惊喜!


3
听力:


  1   学生找教授讨论paper的topic,学生感兴趣的是犹他州Park City 先兴旺、再衰落、再崛起的现象。教授觉得这个topic很好,进一步解释:Park City原来人很少,但发现有有很多的银矿,吸引人们来开采,人口增加;但地表的银矿挖完了,再往深处挖掘就增加了成本,也出现了flooding的难题,再加上国家出现经济萧条,股市衰落(双选题,选项变为经济衰落),这个地方也就衰落了。


之后这个地方又因为发展skiing而复兴了。


学生听了之后很开心,也想写几个城市的boom and bust现象,询问教授是不是应该到当地考察获得一手资料,教授说很好,但需要注意:当地人文化水平不高,当时的情况没有通过日记记录下来,想了解信息只能去问;思考问题的时候还需要注意结合全国范围的背景来考虑(有题)


  2  纽约中央公园。


中央公园受到英国公园文化的影响,先说了英国公园的特征:不开放给游客,主要是为了净化空气保护环境,之后才慢慢开放,并且英国人对公园很感兴趣,例如公园的内外结构。大家都在讨论公园,报纸什么的都在报道公园的信息。有个德国人来到英国看到了英国公园文化,也希望在美国也建一个公园。这个德国人本身并不是做城市规划的,仅仅是一个作家,最初在美国举办了一个比赛,他提供建议和方案的时候受到了怀疑,但最终他把人们的反馈,例如人车分流等,都解决并且落实到方案中,最终有了纽约的中央公园。


  3  共生现象。


共生现象是两个生物相互依存的现象。第一个例子:一种花的花蜜藏得很深,而bat的舌头很长可以吃到花蜜,也只有这个bat能吃到,所以以相互依存的共生关系。第二个例子:一种花通过散发不同味道吸引bat来吃,而bat会帮忙传播花粉。


4图书馆装修。


图书馆装修是为了让学说有更多的地方学习,并且环保。而在更新期间,学生想去3楼的carrel房间帮教授做项目,但3楼的carrel房间只开放给研究生,管理员建议学生去公共区域学习。然而,学生还是希望到三楼学习,一方面他需要看很多的资料,来回搬运不方便;另一方面如果来回搬运材料会很吵,影响到其他学习的学生。管理员建议学生找教授帮忙,写个东西就可以在三楼学习了。


  5  太阳的发热。


以前人们认为太阳发热是由重力势能转化为热能。先说说重力式能,传统观念认为重力式能是由一个星球的引力产生的势能,但实际重力式能是在一个系统中各对象的相互作用产生的势能(有题)。举例:书在高出往桌子上掉落,位置越高,能量越大(Ep=mgh)。但是太阳离地球的距离比我们所设想的要远,如果根据太阳产生的热所推断出的太阳年龄,得到了错误的结论:太阳比地球还年轻。所以太阳的发热是来自重力式能是错误的。引入新的观点:爱因斯坦的质能方程E=mc2,是由于质量产生能量,太阳有足够的质量来产生能量。


  6  日本雕刻对法国艺术的影响。


日本雕刻在法国巴黎广泛展览,法国人对日本雕塑很感兴趣。日本雕塑的产量高,容易获得也广泛运到法国。有一位法国艺术家非常喜欢雕刻,因为和法国人印象派主题相符。


提到了一个人结合了雕刻和印刷,再给了一幅画,这幅画是他为一个咖啡馆画的,一方面关注颜色,另一方面关注depth。


4
口语:


  1  Which of the following is the best way to learn about a city: to join an organized trip; to visit the museums; to take walks in the streets of its cities?<2015.9.12>


  参考回答:I think an organized tour is the best way for a visitor to learn about a city, because there will be a guide whose job is to introduce the site that are covered in the tour, and thus a visitor will not only be able to see the most famous sites which are usually included in such a tour, and also be able to know a lot about each site, like why it is built, what happened there and so on. This is better than he walks around by himself because he got to know more and this is better than visiting a museum because it’s live - it’s the present of the city instead of the past.


  2  Some people like surprise visits from their friends, others prefer to be informed ahead of the visit. Which one do you prefer?


  参考回答:I prefer informed visit to surprise visit, because I’m the kind of person who like to put everything under plan, so there won’t be time conflict. If my friend just drops by unexpectedly, I may have no time for him or her due to the next thing coming up on my schedule and I will feel sorry and he or she may also get disappointed. Also, if my friend is going to visit me, I’d like to prepare food or snacks and drinks for them, but if I don’t know in advance, I will be in a big hurry or it won’t be possible at all. I don’t want that to happen.


  3  阅读:学校决定给教授进行电脑技术培训:教授可以用数字化设施进行教学;学校设立bonus激励教授参加


听力:男的完全赞成。一方面如果老师只讲课,学生在学习过程中无法集中注意力,会无聊。举例子例如历史课中如果有照片和视频就会更吸引学生;另一方面,教授平时工作中忙于打分,作业和研究等事情,有一定的bonus可以鼓励教授们学习电脑技术,这也是一项新的技能。


  参考回答:The man in the conversation thinks the university’s plan to start the Teaching with Technology program is a good idea. Firstly, he thinks this will indeed enhance the learning process because the conventional lectures are boring and subjects like history will be better perceived through images of the historical places and people involved in the historical events. Secondly, he agrees that this will motivate the professors to devote more to teaching. They are busy with classes, grading and researches but this new teaching method will serve as a new incentive for them to find time to prepare more for classes.


  4  Startle Defense 动物通过产生 bright color or loud sound来转移predator的注意力从而远离捕食者,例如和grass颜色很像的grasshoppers,if birds land around grasshoppers,grasshoppers会展开翅膀露出鲜红色并且发出clicking的声音,在鸟受到惊吓的时候趁机逃跑。


  参考回答:The professor takes grasshopper as an example to illustrate startle defense. The grasshopper usually uses its grey and green body color to blend in with the environment, but when it encounters predator, it will fly lower to reveal the red part of its wings and make loud clicking sound to startle the predator and thus take the chance to escape. This is typically how startle defense is employed: startling a predator by displaying a bright color or making a noise.


  5  女生在打篮球的时候伤到肌肉,非常酸爽。医生说肌肉拉伤就要休养,但是她正好有一个篮球比赛需要她参加。医生说女生如果想好得快就不能参加比赛,如果女生实在想参加比赛,就比赛前做拉伸,比赛后冰敷。女生很为难,因为比赛很重要是季后赛啊。


  参考回答:The woman faces a problem that she strained a muscle but she’s got games coming up soon. She now has two solutions: one is not to play for a few weeks to allow the muscle to get better and the other is to still keep practice to prepare for the game. I recommend her to take the second solution, because the games are very important and staying in practice is a good way to keep a good state. Although this may not be good for his injury, she can lessen the time she practices and use some protection. I think as long as she is careful, there won’t be big problems.


  6  拥有Loyalty consumers的advantages: 第一个, transmit positive information, loyalty consumers喜欢产品的一个性能,就会告诉别人,从而吸引新顾客来购买。例如一个car repair store的服务很好,正好有个朋友需要修车,那么loyalty consumer就会告诉朋友去那家店寻找服务。第二个,helpful consumer behaviors,相当于帮公司提供免费客户服务。举例,客户很喜欢一个书店,他在书店的时候发现有人不知道书店是否卖历史书籍,他会direct customers to history book region。


  参考回答:There are two main benefits for maintaining loyal customers. Firstly, this encourages the spreading of positive information of the company and its products, thus attracting new customers. For example, a man as the loyal customer of a car mechanic may tell his friend about the good service he gets, and his friend may in turn tell another friend. Secondly, maintaining loyal customers helps improve products and service. For example, loyal customers can be invited to take part in some surveys and give their advice to how the product or service can be enhanced.


5
写作:


综合写作


阅读观点:欧洲的Portuguese sailors在1520年之前抵达了澳大利亚,而非1606年。


1. 欧洲在1550年代流传的地图中包括了澳大利亚的版图;


2. 欧洲有本书出版于1593年,书中讲到了Marsupials 袋鼠。而Marsupials 袋鼠是澳大利亚很典型的动物,所以欧洲在1606前就有关于澳大利亚的知识了;


3. 有研究人员在澳大利亚找到了欧洲产的铁钥匙,并且他们分析了钥匙附近的土壤,发现土壤的日期可追溯到1500年代,因而证明欧洲人在1520年之前到达了澳大利亚。


听力观点:欧洲的Portuguese sailors只能是1606年到达澳大利亚,不会更早。


1. 地图上landmass的形状和澳大利亚的不同。地图可能是由人们传播二手故事得到的。而二手故事由古代水手传下来,所以欧洲人并没有在1520年代到达澳大利亚;


2. 袋鼠并不都在澳大利亚。美洲也有袋鼠,而欧洲之前explore过美洲,所以书中的袋鼠的信息是来自于北美而非澳大利亚。

3. 后来研究人员用一种new,improved analysis method发现,date of the soil can not determine the date of the keys。


参考范文:


The reading passage suggests that Europeans reached Australia around 1500 and gives three reasons, but the lecturer refuses such opinion and refutes the reasons given in the passage one by one.


First of all, the lecturer says the map published by the Europeans cannot prove that they actually reached Australia, because it can as well be fabricated by the sailors according to the stories about Australia.


Furthermore, the lecturer casts doubt at the European book including the information of the animal marsupial. Because this kind of animals also exist in America, Europeans could be documenting this animal they saw in America instead of Australia.


Lastly, the lecturer points out that the latest dating technology excludes soil as a substance for determining the original location of an object, so the European key found underground in Australia is no longer a solid evidence for the key’s source.


独立写作


Which is the most important thing for a country leader to assure the prosperity of country:


1. Create more jobs for employed worker;

2. Increasing agriculture and low the food price;

3. Increase access to affordable house.


篇后唠叨几句



1.    只要你不是第一次考,在考场上时都应该学会利用考场规则,而不是被考场规则束缚。


2.    大部分觉得自己状态不好、只是马虎不细致和本次题目有史以来最难的心态,都来自于自己的能力不足。


3.    超常发挥=本身能力-考试期望


4.    心乱,做不了模考,看不进书,就关上电脑和书本,用铅笔和A4纸写作文,然后再输入到word文档里。


5.    不要期望考试技巧能雪中送炭,能用上技巧秒杀的题目不超过10%;但考试技巧绝对是锦上添花,特别是只剩下30s就要进入下一个科目,而你还剩下3道题没做完的时候。


6.    是的,第五条是硬广告,欢迎你来参加美联乐闻的托福暑期课程,早点报名,因为很快就会没你的位置了。


本文作者,陈睿,江湖人称陈小睿,英文名很Local,叫做Ray


美联乐闻教学经理,托福教师


觉得这篇文章对你有用的,请点赞和转发,你要是觉得写得不好我就戳死你


果真是有钱,任性!陈睿老师还要继续考下去,每次考试都会为大家带来最新的考题解析,期待陈睿的老师下一篇炫富帖……


回复大学的名字查看你的dream school简介~


例如:

回复【威廉玛丽学院

回复【达特茅斯学院

回复【布朗大学


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